The Middle Years

  • Harry E. Mayhew


Is middle age a chronologic age, a biologic stage, a state of mind, or does it include elements of all three? The definition of this term frequently depends upon the person, the time, and the place in which it is used. Sometimes middle age refers to one portion of a simple chronologic age range, most frequently being from 40 to 60 years. At other times it refers to a change in role status or in career and family relationships, such as empty nest or mentor role. No physiologic events delineate this time, except perhaps the menopause, and there are no official rites of passage except perhaps the fortieth birthday party at the beginning and job retirement at the end.


Endometrial Cancer Family Physician Postmenopausal Estrogen Empty Nest Psychosomatic Complaint 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Aitkin JM: Osteoporosis and its relation to estrogen deficiency. In Campbell S (ed): Management of the Menopause and Post-Menopause Years. Baltimore, University Park Press, 1976, pp 225–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bart P: Depression in middle-aged women. In Gornick V, Moran BK (eds): Women in Sexist Society. New York, Basic Books, 1971, pp 163–186Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Beard RJ: Estrogens and the cardiovascular system. In Beard RJ (ed): The Menopause. Baltimore, University Park Press, 1976, Chap 4Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bittker TE: Reaching out to the depressed physician. JAMA 236:1713, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Clausen JA: Glimpses into the social world of middle age. Int J Aging Hum Dev 7:99, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Erikson EH: Generativity and ego integrity. In Neu-garten BL (ed): Middle Age and Aging. Chicago, Univ of Chicago Press, 1968, pp 85–87Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Generation in the Middle. Chicago, Blue Cross, 1970, Vol. 23, p 11Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kuhlen RG: Developmental changes in motivation during the adult years. In Neugarten BL (ed): Middle Age and Aging. Chicago, Univ of Chicago Press, 1968, pp 115–136Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Livson FB: Patterns of personality development in middle-aged women. A longitudinal study. Int J Aging Hum Dev 7:107, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lowenthal MF, Chiriboga D: Transition to the empty nest. Arch Gen Psychiatry 26:8, 1972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Maslow AH: Self-actualizing people. A study of psychological health. In Personality Symposium. New York, Grune, 1950, pp 11–34Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Masters WH, Johnson VE: Human Sexual Response. Boston, Little, Brown, 1966, pp 234–247Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Midwinter A: Contraindications to estrogen therapy. In Campbell S (ed): Management of the Menopause and Post-Menopausal Years. Baltimore, University Park Press, 1976, pp 378–380Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Neugarten BL, Weinstein K: The changing American grandparent. In Neugarten BL (ed): Middle Age and Aging. Chicago, Univ of Chicago Press, 1968, pp 280–285Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Proudfit CM: Estrogens and menopause. JAMA 236: 939, 1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rigden S, Mayhew H, Lach P: Myocardial infarctions in young adults in a community hospital. Medicina 43(8):9, 1976Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rosen JL, Bibring GL: Psychological reactions of hospitalized male patients to a heart attack. Age and social class differences. Psychosom Med 28:201, 1966Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sargent DA, Jensen VW, Petty TA, Raskin H: Preventing physician suicide. JAMA 237:143, 1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Serlin R: The Launching Stage. A Developmental Crisis in the Family Life Cycle. Unpublished manuscript. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan, 1977Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sheehy G: Passages. New York, Dutton, 1976Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tyzenhouse PS: Myocardial infarction. Its effects on the family. Am J Nurs 73:1012, 1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Weiss NS, Szekely DR, Austin DF: Increasing incidence of endometrial cancer in the United States. N Engl J Med 294:1259, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harry E. Mayhew

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations