Mycobacterial Infections

  • Ralph H. Hruban
  • Grover M. Hutchins


Mycobacteria cause a variety of diseases in man. Diseases caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis are among the oldest of the life-threatening infectious diseases known, but it was only in the 1950s that the nontuberculous mycobacteria were recognized to be pathogenic in humans. Although tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases differ in many important respects, both are undergoing an unprecedented resurgence in their numbers, in large part as a result of the current epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Mycobacterium Avium Mycobacterial Infection Nontuberculous Mycobacterium 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Dubos RJ, Dubos J, Rosenkrantz BG. The white plague: Tuberculosis, man, and society. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1987.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Morse D, Brothwell DR, Ucko PJ. Tuberculosis in ancient Egypt. Am Rev Respir Dis 1964; 90: 524–541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Stead WW, Bates JH. Epidemiology and prevention of tuberculosis. In: Fishman AP, ed. Pulmonary diseases and disorders. 2d Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988: 1795–1810.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Koch R. Die Aetiologie der Tuberculose. Berlin Klin Wochenschr 1882; 19: 221–230.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sbarbaro JA. Tuberculosis: A portal through which to view the future. Am Rev Respir Dis 1982; 125 (Suppl): 127–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Grigg ERN. The arcana of tuberculosis. Am Rev Tuberc Pulm Dis 1958; 78: 151–172.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bates JH. Tuberculosis: Susceptibility and resistance. Am Rev Respir Dis 1982; 125 (Suppl): 20–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kass EH. Infectious diseases and social change. J Infect Dis 1971; 123: 110–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 8a.
    Stead WW. Genetics and resistance to tuberculosis. Could resistance be enhanced by genetic engineering? Ann Int Med 1992; 116: 937–941.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 9.
    Grzybowski S. Impact of tuberculosis on human health in the world. Am Rev Respir Dis 1982; 125 (Suppl): 125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 10.
    Tuberculosis in minorities-United States. MMWR 1987; 36: 77–80.Google Scholar
  12. 11.
    Morgan EJ. Silicosis and tuberculosis. Chest 1979; 75: 202–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 12.
    Rieder HL, Cauthen GM, Comstock GW, Snider DE, Jr. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in the United States. Epidemiol Rev 1989; 11: 79–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 13.
    Browne M, Healy TM. Coexisting carcinoma and active tuberculosis of the lung: 24 patients. Ir J Med Sci 1982; 151: 75–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 14.
    Ortbals DW, Marr JJ. A comparative study of tuberculous and other mycobacterial infections and their associations with malignancy. Am Rev Respir Dis 1978; 117: 39–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 15.
    Kaplan MH, Armstrong D, Rosen P. Tuberculosis complicating neoplastic disease. A review of 201 cases. Cancer 1974; 33: 850–858.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 16.
    Crack cocaine use among persons with tuberculosis-Contra Costa County, California, 1987–1990. MMWR 1991; 40: 485–489.Google Scholar
  18. 17.
    Sbarbaro JA. Tuberculosis. Med Clin N Am 1980; 64: 417–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 18.
    Wayne LG, Hawkins JE. Microbiology of tuberculosis. In: Fishman AP, ed. Pulmonary diseases and disorders. 2d Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988: 1811–1820.Google Scholar
  20. 19.
    Ziehl F. Zur Färbung des Tuberkelbacillus. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1882; 8: 451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 20.
    Wayne LG. Microbiology of tubercle bacilli. Am Rev Respir Dis 1982; 125 (Suppl): 31–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 21.
    Nyka W. Studies on mycobacterium tuberculosis in lesions of the human lung. A new method of staining tubercle bacilli in tissue sections. Am Rev Respir Dis 1963; 88: 670–679.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 22.
    Truant JP, Brett WA, Thomas W, Jr. Fluorescence microscopy of tubercle bacilli stained with auramine and rhodamine. Henry Ford Hosp Med Bull 1962; 10: 287–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 23.
    Shoemaker SA, Fisher JH, Scoggin CH. Techniques of DNA hybridization detect small numbers of mycobacteria with no cross-hybridization with nonmycobacterial respiratory organisms. Am Rev Respir Dis 1985; 131: 760–763.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 24.
    Brisson-Noel AN, Lecossier D, Nassif X, Gicquel B, Levy-Frebault V, Hance AJ. Rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis by amplification of mycobacterial DNA in clinical samples. Lancet 1989; ii:1069–1071.Google Scholar
  26. 24a.
    Walker GT, Little MC, Nadeau JG, Shank DD. Isothermal in vitro amplification of DNA by a restriction enzyme/DNA polymerase system. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992; 89: 392–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 24b.
    Lim SD, Todd J, Lopez J, Ford E, Janda JM. Genotypic identification of pathogenic mycobacterium species by using a nonradioactive oligonucleotide probe. J Clin Microbiol 1991; 29: 1276–1278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 24c.
    Otal I, Martin C, Vincent-Lévy-Frebault V, Thierry D, Gicquel B. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using IS6110 as an epidemiological marker in tuberculosis. J Clin Microbiol 1991; 29: 1252–1254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 25.
    American Thoracic Society. Diagnostic standards and classification of tuberculosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1990; 142: 725–735.Google Scholar
  30. 26.
    Ratcliffe HL, Palladino VS. Tuberculosis induced by droplet nuclei infection. J Exp Med 1953; 97: 61–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 27.
    Riley RL. Disease transmission and contagion control. Am Rev Respir Dis 1982; 125 (Suppl): 16–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 28.
    Riley RL, Mills CC, O’Grady F, Sultan LU, Wittstadt F, Shivpuri DN. Infectiousness of air from a tuberculosis ward. Ultraviolet irradiation of infected air: Compara- tive infectiousness of different patients. Am Rev Respir 48. Dis 1962; 85: 511–525.Google Scholar
  33. 29.
    Pippin DJ, Verderame RA, Weber KK. Efficacy of face masks in preventing inhalation of airborne contami- 49. nants. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1987; 45: 319–323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 30.
    Pratt PC. Pathology of tuberculosis. Semin Roentgenol 1979; 14: 196–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 31.
    Goodwin RA, Des Prez RM. Apical localization of pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic pulmonary histoplas- mosis, and progressive massive fibrosis of the lung. Chest 1983; 83: 801–805.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 32.
    Nice CM Jr. The pathogenesis of tuberculosis. Dis. Chest 1950; 17: 550–560.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 33.
    Simon G. Die Tuberkulose der Lungenspitzen. Beitr Klin Tuberk 1927; 67: 467–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 34.
    Collins FM. The immunology of tuberculosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1982; 125 (Suppl): 42–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 35.
    Dannenberg AM, Jr. Pathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1982; 125 (Suppl): 25–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 36.
    Pitchenik AE, Fertel D, Bloch AB. Mycobacterial dis ease: Epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Clin Chest Med 1988; 9: 425–441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 37.
    Salvin SB, Neta R. A possible relationship between delayed hypersensitivity and cell-mediated immunity. Am Rev Respir Dis 1975; 111: 373–377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 37a.
    Orme IM, Miller ES, Roberts AD, Furney SK, Griffin JP, Dobos KM, Chi D, Rivoire B, Brennan PJ. T lymphocytes mediating protection and cellular cytolysis during the course of mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Evidence for different kinetics and recognition of a wide spectrum of protein antigens. J Immunol 1992; 148: 189–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 38.
    Opie EL, Aronson JD. Tubercle bacilli in latent tuberculous lesions and in lung tissue without tuberculous lesions. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1927; 4: 1–21.Google Scholar
  44. 39.
    Slavin RE, Walsh TJ, Pollack AD. Late generalized tuberculosis: A clinical pathologic analysis and compar 59. ison of 100 cases in the preantibiotic and antibiotic eras. Medicine (Baltimore) 1980; 59: 352–366.Google Scholar
  45. 40.
    Gelb AF, Leffler C, Brewin A, Mascatello V, Lyons HA. Miliary tuberculosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1973; 108: 1327–1333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 41.
    Sahn SA, Neff TA. Miliary tuberculosis. Am J Med 1974; 56: 495–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 42.
    Auerbach O. The natural history of the tuberculous pulmonary lesion. Med Clin N Am 1959; 43: 239–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 43.
    Biehl JP. Miliary tuberculosis: A review of sixty-eight adult patients admitted to a municipal general hospital. Am Rev Tuberc Pulm Dis 1958; 77: 605–622.Google Scholar
  49. 44.
    Epstein DM, Kline LR, Albelda SM, Miller WT. Tuberculous pleural effusions. Chest 1987; 91: 106–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 45.
    Hulnick DH, Naidich DP, McCauley DI. Pleural tuberculosis evaluated by computed tomography. Radiology 1983; 149: 759–765.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 46.
    Enarson DA, Dorken E, Grzybowski S. Tuberculous pleurisy. Can Med Assoc J 1982; 126: 493–495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 47.
    Donath J, Khan FA. Tuberculous and posttuberculous bronchopleural fistula. Ten-year clinical experience. Chest 1984; 86: 697–703.Google Scholar
  53. 48.
    Smith LS, Schillaci RF, Sarlin RF. Endobronchial tuberculosis. Serial fiberoptic bronchoscopy and natural history. Chest 1987; 91: 644 647.Google Scholar
  54. 49.
    Thompson JR, Kent G. Occult tuberculous endobronchitis in surgically resected lung specimens. Am Rev Tuberc Pulm Dis 1958; 77: 931–939.Google Scholar
  55. 50.
    Volckaert A, Roels P, Van Der Niepen P, Schandevyl W. Endobronchial tuberculosis: Report of three cases. Eur J Respir Dis 1987; 70: 99–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 51.
    Rich AR. The pathogenesis of tuberculosis. 2nd Ed. Springfield: Thomas, 1951.Google Scholar
  57. 52.
    Stead WW. Pathogenesis of a first episode of chronic pulmonary tuberculosis in man: Recrudescence of residuals of the primary infection or exogenous reinfection? Am Rev Respir Dis 1967; 95: 729–745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 53.
    Bates JH, Stead WW, Rado TA. Phage type of tubercle bacilli isolated from patients with two or more sites of organ involvement. Am Rev Respir Dis 1976; 114: 353–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 54.
    Mankiewicz E, Liivak M. Phage types of mycobacterium tuberculosis in cultures isolated from Eskimo patients. Am Rev Respir Dis 1975; 111: 307–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 55.
    Ormerod P, Skinner C. Reinfection tuberculosis: Two cases in the family of a patient with drug-resistant disease. Thorax 1980; 35: 56–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 56.
    Raleigh JW, Wichelhausen RH, Rado TA, Bates JH. Evidence for infection by two distinct strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pulmonary tuberculosis: Report of 9 cases. Am Rev Respir Dis 1975; 112: 497–503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 57.
    Raliegh JW, Wichelhausen R. Exogenous reinfection with mycobacterium tuberculosis confirmed by phage typing. Am Rev Respir Dis 1973; 108: 639–642.Google Scholar
  63. 58.
    Khan MA, Kovnat DM, Bachus B, Whitcomb ME, Brody JS, Snider GL. Clinical and roentgenographic spectrum of pulmonary tuberculosis in the adult. Am J Med 1977; 62: 31–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 59.
    Kuhlman JE, Deutsch JH, Fishman EK, Siegelman SS. CT features of thoracic mycobacterial disease. Radio-Graphics 1990; 10: 413–431.Google Scholar
  65. 60.
    Wolinsky E. Nontuberculous mycobacteria and associated diseases. Am Rev Respir Dis 1979; 119: 107–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 61.
    Runyon EH. Anonymous mycobacteria in pulmonary disease. Med Clin N Am 1959; 43: 273–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 62.
    Timpe A, Runyon EH. The relationship of “atypical” acid-fast bacteria to human disease. J Lab Clin Med 1954; 44: 202–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 63.
    Clark M, Hall WH, Pollak A, et al. Veterans Administration-National Tuberculosis Association Cooperative Study of Mycobacteria. Am Rev Tuberc Pulm Dis 1955; 72: 866–869.Google Scholar
  69. 64.
    Tellis CJ, Putnam JS. Pulmonary disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria. Med Clin N Am 1980; 433–446.Google Scholar
  70. 65.
    Sommers HM. The identification of mycobacteria. Lab Med 1978; 9: 34–43.Google Scholar
  71. 66.
    Chapman JS. The atypical mycobacteria. Am Rev Respir Dis 1982; 125 (Suppl): 119–124.Google Scholar
  72. 67.
    Rosenzweig DY. Pulmonary mycobacterial infections due to mycobacterium intracellulare-avium complex. Chest 1979; 75: 115–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 68.
    Contreras MA, Cheung OT, Sanders DE, Goldstein RS. Pulmonary infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria. Am Rev Respir Dis 1988; 137: 149–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 69.
    Hutchins GM, Boitnott JK. Atypical mycobacterial infection complicating mineral oil pneumonia. JAMA 1978; 240: 539–541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 70.
    American Thoracic Society. Mycobacterioses and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis 1987; 136: 492–496.Google Scholar
  76. 71.
    Iseman MD, Corpe RF, O’Brien RJ, Rosenzwieg DY, Wolinsky E. Disease due to mycobacterium aviumintracellulare. Chest 1985; 87: 139S - 149S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 72.
    Horsburgh CR, Jr. Mason UG III, Farhi DC, Iseman MD. Disseminated infection with mycobacterium avium-intracellulare. Medicine (Baltimore) 1985; 64: 36–48.Google Scholar
  78. 73.
    Marchevsky A, Damsker B, Gribetz A, Tepper S, Geller SA. The spectrum of pathology of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in open-lung biopsy specimens. Am J Clin Pathol 1982; 78: 695–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 74.
    Albelda SM, Kern JA, Marinelli DL, Miller WT. Expanding spectrum of pulmonary disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria. Radiology 1985; 157: 289–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 75.
    Snijder J. Histopathology of pulmonary lesions caused by atypical mycobacteria. J Pathol Bacteriol 1965; 90: 65–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 76.
    Smith ER, Penman HG. Histological diagnosis of M. kansasii lung infection: A case report. Pathology 1971; 3: 93–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 77.
    Francis PB, Jay SJ, Johanson WG, Jr. The course of untreated Mycobacterium kansasii disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 1975; 111: 477–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 78.
    Christensen EE, Dietz GW, Ahn CH, Chapman JS, Murry RC, Hurst GA. Radiographic manifestations of pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii infections. AJR 1978; 131: 985–993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 79.
    Bialkin G, Pollak A, Weil AJ. Pulmonary infection with Mycobacterium kansasii. Am J Dis Child 1961; 101: 95–104.Google Scholar
  85. 80.
    Ahn CH, McLarty JW, Ahn SS, Ahn SI, Hurst GA. Diagnostic criteria for pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium intracellulare. Am Rev Respir Dis 1982; 125: 388–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 81.
    Dannenberg AM, Jr., Tomashefski JF, Jr. Pathogenesis of tuberculosis. In: Fishman AP, ed. Pulmonary diseases and disorders. 2d Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988: 1821–1842.Google Scholar
  87. 81a.
    Böttger EC, Teske A, Kirschner P, Bost S, Chang HR, Beer V, Hirschel B. Disseminated “Mycobacterium genavense” infection in patients with AIDS. The Lancet 1992; 340: 76–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 81b.
    Fanning A, Edwards S. Mycobacterium bovis infection in human beings in contact with elk (Cervus elaphus) in Alberta, Canada. The Lancet 1991; 338: 1253–1255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 82.
    Barnes PF, Bloch AB, Davidson PT, Snider DE, Jr. Tuberculosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med 1991; 324: 1644 1650.Google Scholar
  90. 83.
    Tuberculosis-United States, 1985. MMWR 1986; 35: 699–703.Google Scholar
  91. 84.
    Tuberculosis, Final Data-United States, 1986. MMWR 1988; 36: 817–820.Google Scholar
  92. 85.
    Update: Tuberculosis elimination-United States. MMWR 1990; 39: 153–156.Google Scholar
  93. 86.
    Tuberculosis-United States, 1985-and the possible impact of human T-lymphotrophic virus type III/ lymphadenopathy-associated virus infection. MMWR 1986; 35: 74–76.Google Scholar
  94. 87.
    Pitchenik AE, Cole C, Russell BW, Fischl MA, Spira TJ, Snider DE, Jr. Tuberculosis, atypical mycobacteriosis, and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among Haitian and non-Haitian patients in South Florida. Ann Intern Med 1984; 101: 641–645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 88.
    Tuberculosis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-Florida. MMWR 1986; 35: 587–590.Google Scholar
  96. 89.
    Tuberculosis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-New York City. MMWR 1987; 36: 785–795.Google Scholar
  97. 89a.
    De Cock KM, Soro B, Coulibaly IM, Lucas SB. Tuberculosis and HIV infection in sub-saharan Africa. JAMA 1992; 268: 1581–1587.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 90.
    Tuberculosis and AIDS-Connecticut. MMWR 1987; 36: 133–135.Google Scholar
  99. 91.
    Selwyn PA, Hartel D, Lewis VA, et al. A prospective study of the risk of tuberculosis among intravenous drug users with human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med 1989; 320: 545–550.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 91a.
    Daley CL, Small PM, Schecter GF, Schoolnik GK, McAdam RA, Jacobs WR Jr., Hopewell PC. An outbreak of tuberculosis with accelerated progression among persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. An analysis using restriction-fragmentlength polymorphisms. N Engl J Med 1992; 326: 23 1235.Google Scholar
  101. 92.
    Bender BS, Davidson BL, Kline R, Brown C, Quinn TC. Role of the mononuclear phagocyte system in the immunopathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Rev Infect Dis 1988; 10: 1142–1154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 93.
    Duncanson FP, Hewlett D, Jr., Maayan S, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A review of 14 patients. Tubercle 1986; 67: 295–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 94.
    Sunderam G, McDonald RJ, Maniatis T, Oleske J, Kapila R, Reichman LB. Tuberculosis as a manifestation of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). JAMA 1986; 362–366.Google Scholar
  104. 94a.
    Berenguer J, Moreno S, Laguna F, Vicente T, Adrados M, Ortega A, Gonzalez-LaHoz J, Bouza E. Tuberculous meningitis in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. N Engl J Med 1992; 326: 668–672.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 95.
    Pitchenik AE, Rubinson HA. The radiographic appearance of tuberculosis in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and pre-AIDS. Am Rev Respir Dis 1985; 131: 393–396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 96.
    Centers for Disease Control. Diagnosis and management of mycobacterial infection and disease in persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Ann Intern Med 1987; 106: 254–256.Google Scholar
  107. 96a.
    Weiss R. On the track of “killer” TB. Science 1992; 255: 148–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 96b.
    Snider DE Jr., Roper WL. The new tuberculosis. N Engl J Med 1992; 326: 703–705.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 96c.
    Zhang Y, Heym B, Allen B, Young D, Cole S. The catalase-peroxidase gene and isoniazid resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Nature 1992; 358: 59 1593.Google Scholar
  110. 96d.
    Glassroth J. Tuberculosis in the United States. Looking for a silver lining among the clouds. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992; 146: 278–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 96e.
    Chawla PK, Klapper PJ, Kamholz SL, Pollack AH, Heurich AE. Drug-resistant Tuberculosis in an urban population including patients at risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992; 146: 280–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 96f.
    MMWR, 1992 Revised classification system for Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection and expanded AIDS surveillance case definition for adolescents and adults. In Press.Google Scholar
  113. 97.
    Klatt EC, Jensen DF, Meyer PR. Pathology of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Hum Pathol 1987; 18: 709–714.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 98.
    Marinelli DL, Albelda SM, Williams TM, Kern JA, Iozzo RV, Miller WT. Nontuberculous mycobacterial infection in AIDS: Clinical, pathologic and radiographic features. Radiology 1986; 160: 77–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 99.
    Greene JB, Sidhu GS, Lewin S, et al. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare: A cause of disseminated life-threatening infection in homosexuals and drug abusers. Ann Intern Med 1982; 97: 539–546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 100.
    Horsburgh CR, Jr. Mycobacterium avium complex infection in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 1991; 324: 1332–1338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 101.
    Kiehn TE, Cammarata R. Laboratory diagnosis of mycobacterial infections in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Clin Microbiol 1986; 24: 708–711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 102.
    Hawkins CC, Gold JWM, Whimbey E, et al. Mycobacterium avium complex infections in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med 1986; 105: 184–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 103.
    Farhi DC, Mason UG, III, Horsburgh CR, Jr. Pathologic findings in disseminated Mycobacterium aviumintracellulare infection: A report of all 11 cases. Am J Clin Pathol 1986; 85: 67–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 104.
    Nash G, Fligiel S. Pathologic features of the lung in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS): An autopsy study of seventeen homosexual males. Am J Clin Pathol 1984; 81: 6–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 105.
    Wear DJ, Hadfield TL, Connor DH, et al. Periodic acid-Schiff reaction stains Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium ulcerans, Mycobacterium chelonei (abscesses), and Mycobacterium kansasii. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1985; 109: 701–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 106.
    Solis OG, Belmonte AH, Ramaswamy G, Tchertkoff V. Pseudogaucher cells in Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infections in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Am J Clin Pathol 1986; 85: 233–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ralph H. Hruban
  • Grover M. Hutchins

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations