Fungal Infections

  • Francis W. Chandler
  • John C. Watts


Fungi are eukaryotic, unicellular, or filamentous organisms that lack chlorophyll, have chitinous cell walls, and reproduce asexually, sexually, or both ways. All available evidence indicates that humans and animals contract most fungal infections by exposure to infectious particles originating from saprophytic moulds and yeasts growing in nature. Of more than 100,000 fungal species in our environment, only about 150 are known to be pathogenic. Their ability to invade body tissues and to produce disease depends on the virulence of the infectious particle, the infecting dose, the route of infection, the resistance or immune status of the host, the organs affected, and the coexistence of infections and other underlying medical conditions. A few fungi, such as the Candida spp., are endogenous, occurring as commensals on the skin and mucous membranes and in the gastrointestinal tract.1,2 These fungi, which are part of the normal body flora, are opportunists that only rarely infect the noncompromised, healthy individual. The Prototheca spp. are not fungi, but are considered by most taxonomists to be achloric mutants of green algae of the genus Chlorella.3 Nevertheless, diseases caused by the protothecae have traditionally fallen within the province of medical mycology and are therefore included in this chapter. For detailed information on the taxonomy of the fungi, several texts are recommended.2–5


Invasive Aspergillosis Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis Yeast Form Fungus Ball 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



  1. 1.
    Mackowiak PA. The normal microbial flora. N Engl J Med 1982; 307: 83–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Emmons CW, Binford CH, Utz JP, Kwon-Chung KJ. Medical mycology. 3d ed. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1977.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chandler FW, Kaplan W, Ajello L. Color atlas and text of the histopathology of mycotic diseases. Chicago: Year Book Medical, 1980.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    McGinnis MR. Laboratory handbook of medical mycology. New York: Academic Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rippon JW. Medical mycology: the pathogenic fungi and the pathogenic actinomycetes. 2d ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1982.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shaffer PJ, Medoff G, Kobayashi GS. New directions in diagnosis and treatment of fungus infections. Semin Infect Dis 1979; 2: 193–216.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Larson DM, Eckman MR, Alber RL, Goldschmidt VG. Primary cutaneous (inoculation) blastomycosis: an occupational hazard to pathologists. Am J Clin Pathol 1983; 79: 253–255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Newhouse M, Sanchis J, Bienenstock J. Lung defense mechanisms (part 1). N Engl J Med 1976; 295: 990–998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Williams DM, Krick JA, Remington JS. Pulmonary infection in the compromised host, part 1. Am Rev Respir Dis 1976; 114: 359–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ray TL. Fungal infections in the immunocompromised host. Med Clin North Am 1980; 64: 955–966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hawkins C, Armstrong D. Fungal infections in the immunocompromised host. Clin Haematol 1984; 13: 599630.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Krick JA, Remington JS. Opportunistic invasive fungal infections in patients with leukemia and lymphoma. Clin Haematol 1976; 5: 249–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rosen PP. Opportunistic fungal infections in patients with neoplastic diseases. Pathol Annu 1976; 11: 255–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cho SY, Choi HY. Opportunistic fungal infection among cancer patients: a ten-year autopsy study. Am J Clin Pathol 1979; 72: 617–621.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nash G. Pathologic features of the lung in the immunocompromised host. Hum Pathol 1982; 13: 841–858.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nash G, Fligiel S. Pathologic features of the lung in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS): an autopsy study of seventeen homosexual males. Am J Clin Pathol 1984; 81: 6–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chandler FW. Pathology of the mycoses in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Curr Top Med Mycol 1985; 1: 1–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Warnock DW, Richardson MD, eds. Fungal infection in the compromised patient. New York: Wiley, 1982.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Grieco MH. Humoral and cellular responses to infection. In: Grieco MH, ed. Infections in the abnormal host. New York: Yorke Medical, 1980: 131–304.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chandra RK, ed. Primary and secondary immunodeficiency disorders. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1983.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Elliott K, Whelan J, eds. Enzyme defects and immune dysfunction. Ciba Foundation Symposium No. 68. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1979.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Thomson RB Jr, Roberts GD. A practical approach to the diagnosis of fungal infections of the respiratory tract. Clin Lab Med 1982; 2: 321–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Palmer DF, Kaufman L, Kaplan W, Cavallaro JJ. Serodiagnosis of mycotic diseases. Springfield: Thomas, 1977.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kaufman L, Reiss E. Serodiagnosis of fungal diseases. In: Lennett EH, ed. Manual of clinical microbiology. 4th ed. Washington DC: American Society for Microbiology, 1985: 924–944.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schwarz J. The diagnosis of deep mycoses by morphologic methods. Hum Pathol 1982; 13: 519–533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bancroft JD, Stevens A, eds. Theory and practice of histological techniques. London: Churchill Livingstone, 1977.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kennedy A. Basic techniques in diagnostic histopathology. London: Churchill Livingstone, 1977.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sheehan DC, Hnapchak BB. Theory and practice of histotechnology. 2d ed. St. Louis: CV Mosby, 1980.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Elias JM. Principles and techniques in diagnostic histopathology. Park Ridge: Noyes, 1982.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Luna LG. Manual of histologic staining methods of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. 3d ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Vacca LL. Laboratory manual of histochemistry. New York: Raven, 1985.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Liber AF, Choi HS. Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon about silk sutures in tissue. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1973; 95: 217–220.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kwon-Chung KJ, Hill WB, Bennett JE. New, special stain for histopathological diagnosis of cryptococcosis. J Clin Microbiol 1981; 13: 383–387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wood C, Russel-Bell B. Characterization of pigmented fungi by melanin staining. Am J Dermatopathol 1983; 5: 77–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wages DS, Wear DJ. Acid-fastness of fungi in blastomycosis and histoplasmosis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1982; 106: 440–441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Graham AR. Fungal autofluorescence with ultraviolet illumination. Am J Clin Pathol 1983; 79: 231–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Monheit JE, Cowan DF, Moore DG. Rapid detection of fungi in tissues using calcofluor white and fluorescence microscopy. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1984; 108: 616618.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kaplan W, Kraft DE. Demonstration of pathogenic fungi in formalin-fixed tissues by immunofluorescence. Am J Clin Pathol 1969; 52: 420–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kaplan W. Practical application of fluorescent antibody procedures in medical mycology. In: Mycoses. Sci Pub No 304. Washington DC: Pan American Health Organization, 1975: 178–185.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Russell B, Beckett JH, Jacobs PH. Immunoperoxidase localization of Sporothrix schenckn and Cryptococcus neoformans. Staining of tissue sections fixed in 4% formaldehyde solution and embedded in paraffin. Arch Dermatol 1979; 115: 433–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    El Nageeb S, Hay RJ. Immunoperoxidase staining in the recognition of Aspergillus infections. Histopathology 1981; 5: 437–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Humphrey DM, Weiner MH. Candidal antigen detection in pulmonary candidiasis. Am J Med 1983; 74: 630640.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Baker RD, ed. The pathologic anatomy of mycoses: human infection with fungi, actinomycetes and algae. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1971.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Conant NF, Smith DT, Baker RD, Callaway JL. Manual of clinical mycology. 3d ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1971.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Binford CH, Dooley JR. Diseases caused by fungi and actinomycetes. In: Binford CH, Connor DH, eds. Pathology of tropical and extraordinary diseases. Washington DC: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 1976:551609.Google Scholar

Histoplasmosis Capsulati

  1. 46.
    Ajello L, Chick EW, Furcolow ML, eds. Histoplasmosis. Proceedings of the second national conference. Springfield: Thomas, 1971.Google Scholar
  2. 47.
    Domer JE, Moser SA. Histoplasmosis-a review. Rev Med Vet Mycol 1980; 15: 159–182.Google Scholar
  3. 48.
    Schwarz J. Histoplasmosis. New York: Praeger, 1981.Google Scholar
  4. 49.
    Schwarz J, Baum GL, Floyd H. The pathogenesis of “epidemic” histoplasmosis. Ann NY Acad Sci 1960; 89: 47–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 50.
    Goodwin RA Jr, Des Prez RM. Histoplasmosis. State of the art. Am Rev Respir Dis 1978; 117: 929–956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 51.
    Davies SF, Khan M, Sarosi GA. Disseminated histoplasmosis in immunologically suppressed patients. Occurrence in a non-endemic area. Am J Med 1978; 64: 94100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 52.
    Goodwin RA Jr, Shapiro JL, Thurman GH, Thurman SS, Des Prez RM. Disseminated histoplasmosis: clinical and pathologic correlations. Medicine (Baltimore) 1980; 59: 1–33.Google Scholar
  8. 53.
    Kauffman CA, Israel KS, Smith JW, White AC, Schwarz J, Brooks GF. Histoplasmosis in immunosuppressed patients. Am J Med 1978; 64: 923–932.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 54.
    Wheat LJ, Slama TG, Norton JA, et al. Risk factors for disseminated or fatal histoplasmosis. Ann Intern Med 1982; 96: 159–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 55.
    Baker RD. Histoplasmosis in routine autopsies. Am J Clin Pathol 1964; 41: 457–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 56.
    Vanek J, Schwarz J. The gamut of histoplasmosis. Am J Med 1971; 50: 89–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 57.
    Straus SE, Jacobson ES. The spectrum of histoplasmosis in a general hospital: a review of 55 cases diagnosed at Barnes Hospital between 1966 and 1977. Am J Med Sci 1980; 279: 147–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 58.
    Sarosi GA, Davies SF. Histoplasma capsulatum pneumonia. In: Pennington JE, ed. Respiratory infections: diagnosis and management. New York: Raven, 1983:375379.Google Scholar
  14. 59.
    Sutliff WD. Histoplasmosis in Veterans Administration hospitals in middle America. Mycopathologia 1983; 83: 57–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 60.
    Bennish M, Radkowski MA, Rippon JW. Cavitation in acute histoplasmosis. Chest 1983; 84: 496–497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 61.
    Sathapatayavongs B, Batteiger BE, Wheat J, Slama TG, Wass JL. Clinical and laboratory features of disseminated histoplasmosis during two large urban outbreaks. Medicine (Baltimore) 1983; 62: 263–270.Google Scholar
  17. 62.
    Walsh TJ, Catchatourian R, Cohen H. Disseminated histoplasmosis complicating bone marrow transplantation. Am J Clin Pathol 1983; 79: 509–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 63.
    Wheat LJ, Smith EJ, Sathapatayavongs B, et al. Histoplasmosis in renal allograft recipients. Two large urban outbreaks. Arch Intern Med 1983; 143: 703–707.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 64.
    Bonner JR, Alexander WJ, Dismukes WE, et al. Disseminated histoplasmosis in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Arch Intern Med 1984; 144: 2178–2181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 65.
    Wheat LJ, Small CB. Disseminated histoplasmosis in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Arch Intern Med 1984; 144: 2147–2149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 66.
    Wheat LJ, Slama TG, Zeckel ML. Histoplasmosis in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Am J Med 1985; 78: 203–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 67.
    Kaur J, Myers AM. Homosexuality, steroid therapy, and histoplasmosis (letter). Ann Intern Med 1983; 99: 567.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 68.
    Lehmann PF, Gibbons J, Senitzer D, Ribner BS, Freimer EH. T-lymphocyte abnormalities in disseminated histoplasmosis. Am J Med 1983; 75: 790–794.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 69.
    Zeanah CH, Zusman J. Mediastinal and cervical histoplasmosis simulating malignancy. Am J Dis Child 1979; 133: 47–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 70.
    Gaebler JW, Kleiman MB, Cohen M, et al. Differentiation of lymphoma from histoplasmosis in children with mediastinal masses. J Pediatr 1984; 104: 706–709.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 71.
    Crispell KR, Parson W, Hamlin J, Hollifield G. Addison’s disease associated with histoplasmosis: report of four cases and review of the literature. Am J Med 1956; 20: 23–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 72.
    Canlas MS, Dillon ML Jr. Histoplasma capsulatum endocarditis: report of a case following heart surgery. Angiology 1977; 28: 454 463.Google Scholar
  28. 73.
    Gaynes RP, Gardner P, Causey W. Prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum. Arch Intern Med 1981; 141: 1533–1537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 74.
    Strimlan CV, Dines DE, Payne WS. Mediastinal granuloma. Mayo Clin Proc 1975; 50: 702–705.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 75.
    Goodwin RA 1r, Owens FT, Snell JD, et al. Chronic pulmonary histoplasmosis. Medicine (Baltimore) 1976; 55: 413–452.Google Scholar
  31. 76.
    Wheat LJ, Wass J, Norton J, Kohler RB, French ML. Cavitary histoplasmosis occurring during two large urban outbreaks. Analysis of clinical, epidemiologic, roentgenographic, and laboratory features. Medicine (Baltimore) 1984; 63: 201–209.Google Scholar
  32. 77.
    Schwarz J, Baum GL. Fungus diseases of the lungs. Pulmonary histoplasmosis. Semin Roentgenol 1970; 5: 13–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 78.
    Connell JW, Muhm JR. Radiographic manifestations of pulmonary histoplasmosis: a 10-year review. Radiology 1976; 121: 281–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 79.
    Goodwin RA Jr, Snell JD. The enlarging histoplasmoma. Am Rev Respir Dis 1969; 100: 1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 80.
    Silverman FN. Roentgenographic aspects of histoplasmosis. In: Sweeny HC, ed. Histoplasmosis. Springfield: Thomas, 1960: 337–381.Google Scholar
  36. 81.
    Whitehouse WM, Davey WM, Engelke OK, Holt JF. Roentgen findings in histoplasmin-positive school children. J Mich Med Soc 1959; 58: 1266–1269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 82.
    Binford CH. Histoplasmosis: tissue reactions and morphologic variations of the fungus. Am J Clin Pathol 1955; 25: 25–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 83.
    Hutton JP, Durham JB, Miller DP, Everett ED. Hyphal forms of Histoplasma capsulatum. A common manifestation of intravascular infections. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1985; 109: 330–332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 84.
    Puckett TK. Pulmonary histoplasmosis: a study of twenty-two cases with the identification of Histoplasma capsulatum in resected tissues. Am Rev Tuberc 1963; 67: 453–476.Google Scholar
  40. 85.
    Ulbright TM, Katzenstein ALA. Solitary necrotizing granulomas of the lung. Am J Surg Pathol 1980; 4: 1328.Google Scholar
  41. 86.
    Girard DE, Fred HL, Bradshaw MW, Blakely RW, Ettlinger R. Disseminated histoplasmosis diagnosed from peripheral blood film. South Med J 1977; 70: 65–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 87.
    Henochowicz S, Sahovic E, Pistole M, Rodrigues M, Macher A. Histoplasmosis diagnosed on peripheral blood smear from a patient with AIDS. JAMA 1985; 253: 3148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 88.
    Hawkins SS, Gregory DW, Alford RH. Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis: favorable response to ketoconazole. Ann Intern Med 1981; 95: 446–449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 89.
    Slama TG. Treatment of disseminated and progressive cavitary histoplasmosis with ketoconazole. Proceedings of a symposium on new developments in therapy for the mycoses. Am J Med 1983; 74: 70–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Histoplasmosis Duboisii

  1. 90.
    Vanbreuseghem R. L’histoplasmose africaine un histoplasmose causes pour Histoplasma duboisii Vanbreuseghem 1952. Bull Acad R Med Belg 1964; 4: 543–585.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 91.
    Schwarz J. African histoplasmosis (part 2). In: Baker RD, ed. The pathologic anatomy of mycoses: human infection with fungi, actinomycetes and algae. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1971: 139–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 92.
    Yamato H, Hitomi H, Maekawa S, Mimura K. A case of histoplasmosis. Acta Med Okayama 1957; 11: 347–364.Google Scholar
  4. 93.
    Coulanges P, Raveloarison G, Ravisse P. Existence of histoplasmosis with Histoplasma duboisii outside Continental Africa (on the first Malagash case). Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales 1982; 75: 400–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 94.
    Cockshott WP, Lucas AO. Histoplasma duboisii. Q J Med 1964; 33: 223–238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 95.
    Walker J, Spooner ETC. Natural infection of the African baboon (Papio papio) with the large cell form of histoplasmosis. J Pathol Bacteriol 1960; 8: 436–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 96.
    Williams AO, Lawson EA, Lucas AO. African histoplasmosis due to Histoplasma duboisii. Arch Pathol 1971; 92: 306–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 97.
    Nethercott JR, Schachter RK, Givan KF, Ryder DE. Histoplasmosis due to Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii in a Canadian immigrant. Arch Dermatol 1978; 114: 595–598.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 98.
    Shore RN, Waltersdorff RL, Edelstein MV, Teske JH. African histoplasmosis in the United States. JAMA 1981; 245: 734.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 99.
    Lobdell DH, Cappiello MA, Riccio FJ. African histoplasmosis in Connecticut. Conn Med 1982; 46: 187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 100.
    Clark BM, Greenwood BB. Pulmonary lesions in African histoplasmosis. J Trop Med Hyg 1968; 71: 4–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 101.
    Lanceley JL, Lunn HF, Wilson AMM. Histoplasmosis in an African child. J Pediatr 1961; 59: 756–764.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 102.
    Quere MA, Basset A, Basset M, Cave L. Histoplasmose generalisee avec localisation orbitopalpebrale et lacunes craniennes. Ann Oculist 1965; 198: 105–114.Google Scholar
  14. 103.
    Cockshott WP, Lucas AO. Radiological findings in Histoplasma duboisii infections. Br J Radio! 1964; 37: 653–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 104.
    Lunn HF. A case of histoplasmosis of bone in East Africa. J Trop Med Hyg 1960; 63: 175–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 105.
    Adekunle 00, Sudhakaran P, Timeyin ED. African histoplasmosis of the jejunum. Report of a case. J Trop Med Hyg 1978; 81: 88–90.Google Scholar
  17. 106.
    Young CN. North American blastomycosis in South Africa. S Afr Med J 1977; 51: 865.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 107.
    Brown KGE, Molesworth BD, Boerrigter FGG, et al. Disseminated histoplasmosis duboisii in Malawi. Partial response to sulphonamide/trimethoprim combination. East Afr Med J 1974; 51: 584–590.PubMedGoogle Scholar


  1. 108.
    McDonough ES. Blastomycosis: epidemiology and biology of its etiologic agent, Ajellomyces dermatitidis. Mycopathologia 1970; 41: 195–201.Google Scholar
  2. 109.
    Sekhon AS, Jackson FL, Jacobs HJ. Blastomycosis: report of the first case from Alberta, Canada. Mycopathologia 1982; 79: 65–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 110.
    Tenenbaum MJ, Greenspan J, Kerkering TM. Blastomycosis. CRC Crit Rev Microbiol 1982; 9: 139–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 111.
    Kane J, Righter J, Krajden S, Lester RS. Blastomycosis: a new endemic focus in Canada. Can Med Assoc J 1983; 129: 728–731.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 112.
    Schwarz J. Epidemiology and epidemics of blastomycosis. Mykosen 1983; 16: 7–14.Google Scholar
  6. 113.
    Emerson PA, Higgins E, Branfoot A. North American blastomycosis in Africans. Br J Dis Chest 1984; 78: 286291.Google Scholar
  7. 114.
    Sarosi GA, Davies, SF. Blastomycosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1979; 120: 911–938.Google Scholar
  8. 115.
    Denton JF, McDonough ES, Ajello L, Ausherman RJ. Isolation of Blastomyces dermatitidis from soil. Science 1961; 133: 1126–1127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 116.
    Baum GL, Lerner PI. Primary pulmonary blastomycosis: a laboratory acquired infection. Ann Intern Med 1970; 73: 263–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 117.
    Busey JP, ed. Blastomycosis: I. A review of 198 collected cases in the Veterans Administration hospitals. Am Rev Respir Dis 1964; 89: 659–672.Google Scholar
  11. 118.
    Witorsch P, Utz JP. North American blastomycosis: a study of 40 patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 1968; 47: 169200.Google Scholar
  12. 119.
    Vanek J, Schwarz J, Haken S. North American blastomycosis. Am J Clin Pathol 1970; 54: 384–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 120.
    Schwarz J, Baum GL. Fungus diseases of the lungs. North American blastomycosis. Semin Roentgenol 1970; 5: 40 48.Google Scholar
  14. 121.
    Cush R, Light RW, George RB. Clinical and roentgenographic manifestations of acute and chronic blastomycosis. Chest 1976; 69: 345–349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 122.
    Halvorsen RA, Duncan JD, Merten DJ, Gallis HA, Putman CE. Pulmonary blastomycosis: radiologic manifestations. Radiology 1984; 150: 1–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 123.
    Laskey W, Sarosi GA. The radiologic appearance of pulmonary blastomycosis. Radiology 1978; 126: 35 1357.Google Scholar
  17. 124.
    Abernathy RS. Clinical manifestations of pulmonary blastomycosis. Ann Intern Med 1959; 51: 707–727.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 125.
    Inoshita T, Youngberg GA, Boelen LJ, Langston J. Blastomycosis presenting with prostatic involvement: report of 2 cases and review of the literature. J Urol 1983; 130: 160–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 126.
    Stelling CB, Woodring JH, Rehm SR, Hopper DW, Noble RC. Miliary pulmonary blastomycosis. Radiology 1984; 150: 7–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 127.
    Poe RH, Vassalo CL, Plessingar VA. Pulmonary blastomycosis versus carcinoma: a challenging differential. Am J Med Sci 1972; 263: 145–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 128.
    Kinasewitz GT, Penn RL, George RB. The spectrum and significance of pleural disease in blastomycosis. Chest 1984; 86: 580–584.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 129.
    Onal E, Lopata M, Lourence RV. Disseminated pulmonary blastomycosis in an immunosuppressed patient: diagnosis by fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Am Rev Respir Dis 1976; 113: 83–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 130.
    Atkinson JB, McCurley TL. Pulmonary blastomycosis: filamentous forms in an immunocompromised patient with fulminating respiratory failure. Hum Pathol 1983; 14: 186–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 131.
    Laskey WL, Sarosi GA. Endogenous reactivation in blastomycosis. Ann Intern Med 1978; 88: 50–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 132.
    Butka BJ, Bennett SR, Johnson AC. Disseminated in oculation blastomycosis in a renal transplant recipient. Am Rev Respir Dis 1984; 130: 1180–1183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 133.
    Schwarz J, Salfelder K. Blastomycosis: a review of 152 cases. In: Grundmann E, Kirsten WH, eds. Current topics in pathology. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1977; 65: 165–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 134.
    Tuttle JG, Lichtwardt HE, Altshuler CH. Systemic North American blastomycosis. Report of a case with small forms of blastomycetes. Am J Clin Pathol 1953; 23: 890–897.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 135.
    Lockwood WR, Allison F, Blair BE, Busey JF. The treatment of North American blastomycosis. Ten years’ experience. Am Rev Respir Dis 1969; 100: 314–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 136.
    Parker JD, Doto IL, Tosh FE. A decade of experience with blastomycosis and its treatment with amphotericin B. Am Rev Respir Dis 1969; 99: 895–902.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 137.
    Busey JF. Blastomycosis. III. A comparative study of 2-hydroxystilbamidine and amphotericin B therapy. Am Rev Respir Dis 1972; 105: 812–818.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 138.
    Short KL, Harty JI, Amin M, Short LF. The use of ketoconazole to treat systemic blastomycosis presenting as acute epididymitis. J Urol 1983; 129: 382–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 139.
    Sanders JS, Sarosi GA, Nollet DJ, Thompson JI. Exfoliative cytology in the rapid diagnosis of pulmonary blastomycosis. Chest 1977; 72: 193–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 140.
    Trumbull ML, Chesney TM. The cytological diagnosis of pulmonary blastomycosis. JAMA 1981; 245: 836–838.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar


  1. 141.
    Kaufman L, Blumer S. Cryptococcosis: the awakening giant. In: The black and white yeasts. Sci Pub 356. Washington DC: Pan American Health Organization, 1978: 176–182.Google Scholar
  2. 142.
    Powell KE, Dahl BA, Weeks RJ, Tosh FE. Airborne Cryptococcus neoformans: particles from pigeon excreta compatible with alveolar deposition. J Infect Dis 1972; 125: 412–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 143.
    Diamond RD. Cryptococcus neoformans pneumonia. In: Pennington JE, ed. Respiratory infections: diagnosis and management. New York: Raven, 1983: 341–351.Google Scholar
  4. 144.
    Nielson JB, Fromtling RA, Bulmer GS. Cryptococcus neoformans: size range of infectious particles from aerosolized soil. Infect Immun 1977; 17: 634–638.Google Scholar
  5. 145.
    Littman ML, Walter JE. Cryptococcosis: current status. Am J Med 1968; 45: 922–932.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 146.
    Lewis JL, Rabinovich S. The wide spectrum of cryptococcal infections. Am J Med 1972; 53: 315–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 147.
    Noble RC, Fajardo LF. Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis: review and morphologic study. Am J Clin Pathol 1972; 57: 13–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 148.
    Kaplan MH, Rosen PP, Armstrong D. Cryptococcosis in a cancer hospital. Clinical and pathological correlates in forty-six patients. Cancer 1977; 39: 2265–2274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 149.
    Kerkering TM, Duma RJ, Shadomy S. The evolution of pulmonary cryptococcosis: clinical implications from a study of 41 patients with and without compromising host factors. Ann Intern Med 1981; 94: 611–616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 150.
    150. Schimpff SC, Bennett JE. Abnormalities in cell-mediated immunity in patients with Cryptococcus neoformans infections. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1975;55:430–441.Google Scholar
  11. 151.
    Krumholz RA. Pulmonary cryptococcosis: a case due to Cryptococcus albidus. Am Rev Respir Dis 1972; 105: 421–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 152.
    Lynch JP III, Schaberg DR, Kissner DG, Kauffman CA. Cryptococcus laurentii lung abscess. Am Rev Respir Dis 1981; 123: 135–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 153.
    Sarosi GA, Silberfarb PM, Tosh FE. Cutaneous cryptococcosis: a sentinel of disseminated disease. Arch Dermatol 1971; 104: 1–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 154.
    Schupbach CW, Wheeler CE, Briggaman RA, Warner NA, Kanof EP. Cutaneous manifestations of disseminated cryptococcosis. Arch Dermatol 1976; 112: 1734 1740.Google Scholar
  15. 155.
    Massa MG, Doyle JA. Cutaneous cryptococcosis simulating pyoderma gangrenosum. J Am Acad Dermatol 1981; 5: 32–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 156.
    Borton LK, Wintroub BU. Disseminated cryptococcosis presenting as herpetiform lesions in a homosexual man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol 1984; 10: 387–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 157.
    Rico MJ, Penneys NS. Cutaneous cryptococcosis resembling molluscum contagiosum in a patient with AIDS. Arch Dermatol 1985; 121: 901–902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 158.
    Campbell GD. Primary pulmonary cryptococcosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1966; 94: 236–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 159.
    Warr W, Bates JH, Stone A. The spectrum of pulmonary cryptococcosis. Ann Intern Med 1968; 69: 1109–1116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 160.
    Hammerman KJ, Powell KE, Christianson CS, et al. Pulmonary cryptococcosis: clinical forms and treatment. A Center for Disease Control cooperative mycoses study. Am Rev Respir Dis 1973; 108: 1116–1123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 161.
    Tynes B, Mason KN, Jennings AE, Bennett JE. Variant forms of pulmonary cryptococcosis. Ann Intern Med 1968; 69: 1117–1125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 162.
    Cohen AA, Davis W, Finegold SM. Chronic pulmonary cryptococcosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1965; 91: 414–423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 163.
    Feigin DS. Pulmonary cryptococcosis: radiologic-pathologic correlates of its three forms. AJR 1983; 141: 1262 1272.Google Scholar
  24. 164.
    Salyer WR. Primary complex of Cryptococcus and pulmonary lymph nodes. J Infect Dis 1974; 130: 74–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 165.
    Baker RD. The primary pulmonary lymph node complex of cryptococcosis. Am J Clin Pathol 1976; 65: 8392.Google Scholar
  26. 166.
    Schwarz J, Baum GL. Fungus diseases of the lungs. Cryptococcosis. Semin Roentgenol 1970; 5: 49–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 167.
    Khoury MB, Godwin JD, Ravin CE, Gallis HA, Halvorsen RA, Putman CE. Thoracic cryptococcosis: immunologic competence and radiologic appearance. AJR 1984; 142: 893–896.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 168.
    Gordonson J, Birnbaum W, Jacobson G, Sargent EN. Pulmonary cryptococcosis. Radiology 1974; 112: 557561.Google Scholar
  29. 169.
    Young EJ, Hirsh DD, Fainstein V, Williams TW. Pleural effusions due to Cryptococcus neoformans: a review of the literature and report of two cases with cryptococcal antigen determinations. Am Rev Respir Dis 1980; 121: 743747.Google Scholar
  30. 170.
    Fisher BD, Armstrong D. Cryptococcal interstitial pneumonia: value of antigen determination. N Engl J Med 1977; 297: 1440–1441.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 171.
    Kent TH, Layton [M. Massive pulmonary cryptococcosis. Am J Clin Pathol 1962; 38: 596–604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 172.
    Bloomfield N, Gordon MA, Elmendorf DF Jr. Detection of Cryptococcus neoformans antigen in body fluids by latex particle agglutination. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1963; 114: 64–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 173.
    Diamond RD. Cryptococcus neoformans. In: Mandell GL, Douglas RG, Bennett JE, eds. Principles and practice of infectious diseases. 2d ed. New York: Wiley, 1985: 1460–1468.Google Scholar
  34. 174.
    Perkins W. Pulmonary cryptococcosis: report on the treatment of nine cases. Chest 1969; 56: 389–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 175.
    Smith FS, Gibson P, Nicholls TT, Simpson JA. Pulmonary resection for localized lesions of cryptococcosis (torulosis): a review of eight cases. Thorax 1976; 31: 12 1126.Google Scholar
  36. 176.
    Baker RD, Haugh RK. Tissue changes and tissue diagnosis in cryptococcosis. A study of twenty-six cases. Am J Clin Pathol 1955; 25: 14–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 177.
    Stoetzner H, Kemmer C. The morphology of Cryptococcus neoformans in human cryptococcosis. A light-, phase-contrast and electron-microscopic study. Mycopathol Mycol Applicata 1971; 45: 327–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 178.
    Farmer SG, Komorowski RA. Histologic response to capsule-deficient Cryptococcus neoformans. Arch Pathol 1973; 96: 383–387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 179.
    Rosenheim SH, Schwarz J. Cavitary pulmonary cryptococcosis complicated by aspergilloma. Am Rev Respir Dis 1975; 111: 549–553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 180.
    Gutierrez F, Fu YS, Lurie HI. Cryptococcosis histologically resembling histoplasmosis. A light and electron microscopical study. Arch Pathol 1975; 99: 347–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 181.
    Harding SA, Scheld WM, Feldman PS, Sande MA. Pulmonary infection with capsule-deficient Cryptococcus neoformans. Virchows Arch [A] 1979; 382: 113–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar


  1. 182.
    Angulo-Ortega A, Pollak L. Paracoccidioidomycosis. In: Baker RD, ed. The pathologic anatomy of mycoses: human infection with fungi, actinomycetes and algae. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1971: 507–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 183.
    Giraldo R, Restrepo A, Gutierrez F, et al. Pathogenesis of paracoccidioidomycosis: a model based on the study of 46 patients. Mycopathologia 1976; 58: 63–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 184.
    Restrepo A, Robledo M, Giraldo R, et al. The gamut of paracoccidioidomycosis. Am J Med 1976; 61: 33–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 185.
    Fountain FF, Sutliff WD. Paracoccidioidomycosis in the United States. Am Rev Respir Dis 1969; 99: 89–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 186.
    Kroll JJ, Walzer RA. Paracoccidioidomycosis in the United States. Arch Dermatol 1972; 106: 543–546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 187.
    Murray HW, Littman ML, Roberts RB. Disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis (South American blastomycosis) in the United States. Am J Med 1974; 56: 209–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 188.
    Bouza E, Winston DJ, Rhodes J, Hewitt WL. Paracoccidioidomycosis (South American blastomycosis) in the United States. Chest 1977; 72: 100–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 189.
    Restrepo A, Robledo M, Gutierrez F, Sanclemente M, Castaneda E, Calle G. Paracoccidioidomycosis (South American blastomycosis): a study of 39 cases observed in Medellin, Colombia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1970; 19: 68–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 190.
    Salfelder K, Doehnert G, Doehnert HR. Paracoccidioidomycosis: anatomic study with complete autopsies. Virchows Arch [A] 1969; 348: 51–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 191.
    Restrepo A. The ecology of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: a puzzle still unsolved. Sabouraudia 1985; 23: 323–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 192.
    Sugar AM, Restrepo A, Stevens DA. Paracoccidioidomycosis in the immunosuppressed host: report of a case and review of the literature. Am Rev Respir Dis 1984; 129: 340–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 193.
    Londero AT, Ramos CD, Lopes JOS. Progressive pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis: a study of 34 cases observed in Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). Mycopathologia 1978; 63: 53–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 194.
    Londero AT, Severo LC. The gamut of progressive pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis. Mycopathologia 1981; 75: 65–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Schwarz J, Baum GL. Paracoccidioidomycosis (South American blastomycosis). Semin Roentgenol 1970; 5:69–72.Google Scholar
  15. 196.
    Severo LC, Geyer GR, Londero AT, Porto NS, Rizzon CFC. The primary pulmonary lymph node complex in paracoccidioidomycosis. Mycopathologia 1979; 67: 115–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 197.
    Londero AT, Severo LC, Ramos CD. Small forms and hyphae of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in human tissue. Mycopathologia 1980; 72: 17–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 198.
    Tani EM, Franco M. Pulmonary cytology in paracoccidioidomycosis. Acta Cytol 1984; 28: 571–575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 199.
    Cohen J. Antifungal chemotherapy. Lancet 1982; 2: 532–537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 200.
    Hermans PE, Key TF. Antifungal agents used for deep-seated mycotic infections. Mayo Clin Proc 1983; 58: 223–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar


  1. 201.
    Lurie HI. Sporotrichosis. In: Baker RD, ed. The pathologic anatomy of mycoses: human infection with fungi, actinomycetes and algae. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1971: 614–675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 202.
    Bullpitt P, Weedon D. Sporotrichosis: a review of 39 cases. Pathology 1978; 10: 249–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 203.
    Lurie HI. Histopathology of sporotrichosis. Arch Pathol 1963; 75: 92–109.Google Scholar
  4. 204.
    Scott SM, Peasley ED, Crymes TP. Pulmonary sporotrichosis. Report of two cases with cavitation. N Engl J Med 1961; 265: 453–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 205.
    Baum GL, Donnerberg RL, Steward D, Mulligan WJ, Putnam LR. Pulmonary sporotrichosis. N Engl J Med 1969; 280: 410–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 206.
    Berson SD, Brandt FA. Primary pulmonary sporotrichosis with unusual fungal morphology. Thorax 1977; 32: 505–508.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 207.
    England DM, Hochholzer L. Primary pulmonary sporotrichosis. Report of eight cases with clinicopathologic review. Am J Surg Pathol 1985; 9: 193–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 208.
    Wilson DE, Mann JJ, Bennett JE, Utz JP. Clinical features of extracutaneous sporotrichosis. Medicine (Baltimore) 1967; 46: 265–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 209.
    Lynch PJ, Voorhees JJ, Harrell ER. Systemic sporotrichosis. Ann Intern Med 1970; 73: 23–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 210.
    Font RL, Jakobiec FA. Granulomatous necrotizing retinochoroiditis caused by Sporotrichum schenckii. Report of a case including immunofluorescence and electron microscopical studies. Arch Ophthalmol 1976; 94: 1513 1519.Google Scholar
  11. 211.
    Brook CJ, Ravikrishnan KP, Weg JG. Pulmonary and articular sporotrichosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1977; 116: 141–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 212.
    Friedman SJ, Doyle JA. Extracutaneous sporotrichosis. Int J Dermatol 1983; 22: 171–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 213.
    Smith PW, Loomis GW, Luckasen JL, Osterholm RK. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis. Three illustrative cases. Arch Dermatol 1981; 117: 143–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 214.
    Smith AG, Morgan WKC, Hornick RB, Funk AM. Chronic pulmonary sporotrichosis: report of a case, including morphologic and mycologic studies. Am J Clin Pathol 1970; 54: 401–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 215.
    Schwarz J, Baum GL. Fungus diseases of the lungs. Sporotrichosis. Semin Roentgenol 1970; 5: 55–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 216.
    Comstock C, Wolson AH. Roentgenology of sporotrichosis. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 1975; 125: 651–655.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 217.
    Lurie HI, Still WIS. The “capsule” of Sporotrichum schenckii and the evolution of the asteroid body. A light and electron microscopic study. Sabouraudia 1969; 7: 64–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 218.
    Maberry JD, Mullins JF, Stone OJ. Sporotrichosis with demonstration of hyphae in human tissue. Arch Dermatol 1966; 93: 65–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 219.
    Mohr JA, Patterson CD, Eaton BG, Rhoades ER, Nichols NB. Primary pulmonary sporotrichosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1972; 106: 260–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 220.
    Kaplan W, Gonzalez-Ochoa A. Application of the fluorescent antibody technique to the rapid diagnosis of sporotrichosis. J Lab Clin Med 1963; 62: 835–841.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 221.
    Parker JD, Sarosi GA, Tosh FE. Treatment of extracutaneous sporotrichosis. Arch Intern Med 1970; 125: 858863.Google Scholar
  22. 222.
    Rohwedder JJ, Archer G. Pulmonary sporotrichosis: treatment with miconazole. Am Rev Respir Dis 1976; 114: 403–406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 223.
    Jung JY, Almond CH, Campbell DC, Elkadi A, Tenorio A. Role of surgery in the management of pulmonary sporotrichosis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1979; 77: 234239.Google Scholar


  1. 224.
    Grimley PM, Wright LD, Jennings AE. Torulopsis glabrata infection in man. Am J Clin Pathol 1965; 43: 216223.Google Scholar
  2. 225.
    Marks MI, Langston C, Eickhoff TC. Torulopsis glabrata-an opportunistic pathogen of man. N Engl J Med 1970; 283: 1131–1135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 226.
    Yarrow D, Meyer SA. Proposal for amendment of the diagnosis of the genus Candida Berkhout nom. cons. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1978; 28: 611–615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 227.
    McGinnis MR, Ajello L, Beneke ES, et al. Taxonomic and nomenclatural evaluation of the genera Candida and Torulopsis. J Clin Microbiol 1984; 20: 813–814.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 228.
    Lodder J. The yeasts. A taxonomic study. 2d ed. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1970.Google Scholar
  6. 229.
    Katz D, Pickard RE. Systemic Torulopsis glabrata infection causing shock, fever and coma. Am J Med 1967; 42: 151–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 230.
    Louria DB, Belvins A, Armstrong D, Burdick R, Lieberman P. Fungemia caused by “nonpathogenic” yeasts. Arch Intern Med 1967; 119: 247–252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 231.
    Rodrigues RJ, Shinya H, Wolff WI, Puttlitz D. Torulopsis glabrata fungemia during prolonged intravenous alimentation therapy. N Engl J Med 1971; 284: 540–541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 232.
    Pankey GA, Daloviso JR. Fungemia caused by Torulopsis glabrata. Medicine (Baltimore) 1973; 52: 395–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 233.
    Young RC, Bennett JE, Geelhoed GW, Levine AS. Fungemia with compromised host resistance. A study of 70 cases. Ann Intern Med 1974; 80: 605–612.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 234.
    Valdivieso M, Luna M, Bodey GP, Rodriguez V, Groschel D. Fungemia due to Torulopsis glabrata in the compromised host. Cancer 1976; 38: 1750–1756.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 235.
    Berkowitz ID, Robboy SJ, Karchmer AW, Kunz U. Torulopsis glabrata fungemia-a clinical pathological study. Medicine (Baltimore) 1979; 58: 430–440.Google Scholar
  13. 236.
    Kauffman CA, Tan JS. Torulopsis glabrata renal infection. Am J Med 1974; 57: 217–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 237.
    Takeuchi H, Tomoyoshi T. Torulopsis infection extensively involving urinary tract. Urology 1983; 22: 173–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 238.
    Vordermark JS II, Modarelli RO, Buck AS. Torulopsis pyelonephritis associated with papillary necrosis. A case report. J Urol 1980; 123: 96–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 239.
    Oldfield FS, Kapica L, Pirozynski W.J. Pulmonary infection due to Torulopsis glabrata. Can Med Assoc J 1968; 98: 165–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 240.
    Aisner J, Sickles EA, Schimpff SC, Young VM, Greene WH, Wiernik PH. Torulopsis glabrata pneumonitis in patients with cancer: report of three cases. JAMA 1974; 230: 584–585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 241.
    Sander LA, Young EJ, Musher DM, Clarridge JE. Torulopsis glabrata pneumonia in a malnourished woman. South Med J 1979; 72: 1477–1479.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 242.
    Gustke KA, Wu KK. Torulopsis glabrata osteomyelitis: report of a case. Clin Orthop 1981; 154: 197–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 243.
    Thurston AJ, Gillespie WJ. Torulopsis glabrata osteomyelitis of the spine: a case report and review of the literature. Aust NZ J Surg 1981; 51: 374–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 244.
    Heffner DK, Franklin WA. Endocarditis caused by Torulopsis glabrata. Am J Clin Pathol 1978; 70: 420–423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 245.
    Holliday HD, Keipper V, Kaiser AB. Torulopsis glabrata endocarditis. JAMA 1980; 244: 2088–2089.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 246.
    Miller DD. Postoperative acalculous cholecystitis due to Torulopsis glabrata. Arch Surg 1976; 111: 1404–1405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 247.
    Baley JE, Dliegman RM, Annable WL, Dahms BB, Fanaroff AA. Torulopsis glabrata sepsis appearing as necrotizing enterocolitis and endophthalmitis. Am J Dis Child 1984; 138: 965–966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 248.
    Wurzel B, Goldberg P, Caroline L, Bozza AT, Kozinn PJ. Torulopsis glabrata meningoencephalitis treated with 5-flucytosine. Ann Intern Med 1972; 77: 814–815.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 249.
    Fitzsimons RB, Nicholls MD, Billson FA, Robertson TI, Hersey P. Fungal retinitis: a case of Torulopsis glabrata infection treated with miconazole. Br J Ophthalmol 1980; 64: 672–675.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 250.
    Clark JFJ, Faggett T, Peters B, et al. Ulcerative vaginitis due to Torulopsis glabrata: a case report. J Natl Med Assoc 1978; 70: 913–914.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 251.
    Hahn H, Condie F, Bulger RF. Diagnosis of Torulopsis glabrata infection. JAMA 1968; 203: 835–837.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 252.
    Rose HD, Heckman MG. Persistent fungemia caused by Torulopsis glabrata: treatment with amphotericin B. Am J Clin Pathol 1970; 54: 205–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar


  1. 253.
    Rose HD, Varkey B. Deep mycotic infection in the hospitalized adult: a study of 123 patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 1975; 54: 499–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 254.
    DeGregorio MW, Lee WMF, Linker CA, Jacobs RA, Ries CA. Fungal infections in patients with acute leukemia. Am J Med 1982; 73: 543–548.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 255.
    Maksymiuk AW, Thongprasert S, Hopfer R, Luna M, Fainstein V, Bodey GP. Systemic candidiasis in cancer patients. Am J Med 1984; 77 (4D): 20–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 256.
    Schwartz RS, Mackintosh FR, Schrier SL, Greenberg PL. Multivariate analysis of factors associated with invasive fungal disease during remission induction therapy for acute myelogenous leukemia. Cancer 1984; 53: 41 1419.Google Scholar
  5. 257.
    Hopfer RL. Mycology of candida infections. In: Bodey GP, Fainstein V, eds. Candidiasis. New York: Raven, 1985: 1–12.Google Scholar
  6. 258.
    Parker JC, McCloskey JJ, Knauer KA. Pathobiologic features of human candidiasis: a common deep mycosis of the brain, heart and kidney in the altered host. Am J Clin Pathol 1976; 65: 991–1000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 259.
    Myerowitz RL, Pazin GJ, Allen CM. Disseminated candidiasis: changes in incidence, underlying diseases, and pathology. Am J Clin Pathol 1977; 68: 29–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 260.
    Kiehn TE, Edwards FF, Armstrong D. The prevalence of yeasts in clinical specimens from cancer patients. Am J Clin Pathol 1980; 73: 518–521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 261.
    Hughes WT. Systemic candidiasis: a study of 109 fatal cases. Pediatr Infect Dis 1982; 1: 11–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 262.
    Marsh PK, Tally FP, Kellum J, Callow A, Gorbach SL. Candida infections in surgical patients. Ann Surg 1983; 198: 42–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 263.
    Kozinn PJ, Taschdjian CL. Candida albicans: saprophyte or pathogen? JAMA 1966; 198: 170–172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 264.
    Rippon JW. Medical mycology: the pathogenic fungi and the pathogenic actinomycetes. 2d ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1982: 484–531.Google Scholar
  13. 265.
    Edwards JW, moderator. Severe candidal infections: clinical perspective, immune defense mechanisms, and current concepts of therapy. Ann Intern Med 1978; 89: 91–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 266.
    Smith CB. Candidiasis: pathogenesis, host resistance, and predisposing factors. In: Bodey GP, Fainstein V, eds. Candidiasis. New York: Raven, 1985: 53–70.Google Scholar
  15. 267.
    Marchevsky A, Rosen MJ, Chrystal G, Kleinerman J. Pulmonary complications of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a clinicopathologic study of 70 cases. Hum Pathol 1985; 16: 659–670.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 268.
    Myerowitz RL. The pathology of opportunistic infections with pathogenetic, diagnostic, and clinical correlations. New York: Raven, 1983: 95–114.Google Scholar
  17. 269.
    Kassner EG, Kauffman SL, Yoon JJ, Semiglia M, Kozinn PJ, Goldberg PL. Pulmonary candidiasis in infants: clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features. AJR 1981; 137: 707–716.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 270.
    Masur H, Rosen PP, Armstrong D. Pulmonary disease caused by Candida species. Am J Med 1977; 63: 914–925.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 271.
    Bodey GP, Fainstein V. Systemic candidiasis. In: Bodey GP, Fainstein V, eds. Candidiasis. New York: Raven, 1985: 135–168.Google Scholar
  20. 272.
    Ramirez G, Shuster M, Kozub W, Pribor HG. Fatal acute Candida albicans bronchopneumonia: report of a case. JAMA 1967; 199: 340–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 273.
    Steven PJ, Jameson JW, Philpott CM. Fatal pulmonary candidiasis. Lancet 1972; 1: 962–963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 274.
    Rosenbaum RB, Barber JV, Stevens DA. Candida albicans pneumonia: diagnosis by pulmonary aspiration, recovery without treatment. Am Rev Respir Dis 1974; 109: 373–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 275.
    Pagani JJ, Libshitz HI. Opportunistic fungal pneumonias in cancer patients. AJR 1981; 137: 1033–1039.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 276.
    Pagani JJ, Libshitz HI. Radiology of Candida infections. In: Bodey GP, Fainstein V, eds. Candidiasis. New York: Raven, 1985: 71–84.Google Scholar
  25. 277.
    Dubois PJ, Myerowitz RL, Allen CM. Pathoradiologic correlation of pulmonary candidiasis in immunosuppressed patients. Cancer 1977; 40: 1026–1036.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 278.
    Bode FR, Paré JAP, Fraser RG. Pulmonary diseases in the compromised host: a review of clinical and roentgenographic manifestations in patients with imparied host defense mechanisms. Medicine (Baltimore) 1974; 53: 255–293.Google Scholar
  27. 279.
    Buff SJ, McLelland R, Gallis HA, Matthay R, Putman CE. Candida albicans pneumonia: radiographic appearance. AJR 1982; 138: 645–648.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 280.
    Hietala SO, Jonsson M, Burman LA. Candida albicans pneumonia. Acta Radio ! [Diagn] (Stockh) 1982; 23: 507511.Google Scholar
  29. 281.
    Rose HS, Sheth NK. Pulmonary candidiasis: a clinical and pathologic correlation. Arch Intern Med 1978; 138: 964–965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 282.
    Kozinn PJ, Taschdjian CL. Laboratory diagnosis of candidiasis. In: Bodey GP, Fainstein V, eds. Candidiasis. New York: Raven, 1985: 85–110.Google Scholar
  31. 283.
    Gold, JWM. Opportunistic fungal infections in patients with neoplastic disease. Am J Med 1984; 76: 458–463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 284.
    Goldstein E, Hoeprich PD. Problems in the diagnosis and treatment of systemic candidiasis. J Infect Dis 1972; 125: 190–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 285.
    Utz JP, Drouhet E. Treatment of Candida infections. In: Bodey GP, Fainstein V, eds. Candidiasis. New York: Raven, 1985: 253–269.Google Scholar
  34. 286.
    Nakamura T. Experimental pulmonary candidiasis in modified rabbits. Mycopathologia 1984; 85: 129–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 287.
    Luna MA, Tortoledo ME. Histologic identification and pathologic patterns of disease due to Candida. In: Bodey GP, Fainstein V, eds. Candidiasis. New York: Raven, 1985: 13–27.Google Scholar
  36. 288.
    Kaplan W. Direct fluorescent antibody tests for the diagnosis of mycotic diseases. Ann Clin Lab Sci 1973; 3: 25–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar


  1. 289.
    Pennington JE. Aspergillus lung disease. Med Clin North Am 1980;64:475–490.Google Scholar
  2. 290.
    Greene R. The pulmonary aspergilloses: three distinct entities or a spectrum of disease. Radiology 1981; 140: 527–530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 291.
    Katzenstein AL, Liebow AA, Friedman PJ. Bronchocentric granulomatosis, mucoid impaction, and hypersensitivity reactions to fungi. Am Rev Respir Dis 1975; 111: 497–537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 292.
    Koss MN, Hochholzer L, Feigin DS, Garancis JC, Ward PA. Necrotizing sarcoid-like granulomatosis: clinical, pathologic, and immunopathologic findings. Hum Pathol 1980; 11: 510–519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 293.
    Greene R. Opportunistic pneumonias. Semin Roentgenol 1980; 15: 50–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 294.
    Myerowitz RL. The pathology of opportunistic infections with pathogenetic, diagnostic, and clinical correlations. New York: Raven, 1983: 115–128.Google Scholar
  7. 295.
    Rippon JW. Medical mycology: the pathogenic fungi and the pathogenic actinomycetes. 2d ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1982: 565–594.Google Scholar
  8. 296.
    Young RC, Bennett JE, Vogel CL, Carbone PP, DeVita VT. Aspergillosis: the spectrum of the disease in 98 patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 1970; 49: 147–173.Google Scholar
  9. 297.
    Pena CE. Aspergillosis. In: Baker RD, ed. The pathologic anatomy of mycoses: human infection with fungi, actinomycetes and algae. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1971: 762–831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 298.
    Young RC, Jennings A, Bennett JE. Species identification of invasive aspergillosis in man. Am J Clin Pathol 1972; 58: 554–557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 299.
    Binder RE, Faling LJ, Pugatch RD, Mahasaen C, Snider GL. Chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis: a discrete clinical entity. Medicine (Baltimore) 1982; 61: 109124.Google Scholar
  12. 300.
    Weiland D, Ferguson RM, Peterson PK, Snover DC, Simmons RL, Najarian JS. Aspergillosis in 25 renal transplant patients: epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management. Ann Surg 1983; 198: 62 2629.Google Scholar
  13. 301.
    Albelda SM, Talbot GH, Gerson SL, Miller WT, Cassileth PA. Pulmonary cavitation and massive hemoptysis in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis: influence of bone marrow recovery in patients with acute leukemia. Am Rev Respir Dis 1985; 131: 115–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 302.
    Raper KB, Fennell DI. The genus Aspergillus. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1965.Google Scholar
  15. 303.
    Bardana EJ. Pulmonary aspergillosis. In: Al-Doory Y, Wagner GE, eds. Aspergillosis. Springfield: Thomas, 1985: 43–78.Google Scholar
  16. 304.
    British Thoracic and Tuberculosis Association. Aspergilloma and residual tuberculous cavities: the results of a resurvey. Tubercle 1970; 51: 227–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 305.
    Aslam PA, Eastridge CE, Hughes FA. Aspergillosis of the lung-an eighteen-year experience. Chest 1971; 59: 28–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 306.
    Freundlich IM, Israel HL. Pulmonary aspergillosis. Clin Radiol 1973; 24: 248–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 307.
    Pennington JE. Opportunistic fungal pneumonias: Aspergillus, Mucor, Candida, Torulopsis. In: Pennington JE, ed. Respiratory infections: diagnosis and management. New York: Raven, 1983: 329–339.Google Scholar
  20. 308.
    Glimp RA, Bayer AS. Pulmonaryaspergilloma: diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Arch Intern Med 1983; 143: 303–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 309.
    Sinclair AJ, Rossof AH, Coltman CA. Recognition and successful management in pulmonary aspergillosis in leukemia. Cancer 1978; 42: 2019–2024.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 310.
    Przyjemski C, Mattii R. The formation of pulmonary mycetomata. Cancer 1980; 46: 1701–1704.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 311.
    Henderson AH, English MP, Vecht RJ. Pulmonary aspergillosis: a survey of its occurrence in patients with chronic lung disease and a discussion of the significance of diagnostic tests. Thorax 1968; 23: 513–518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 312.
    Klein DL, Gamsu G. Thoracic manifestations of aspergillosis. AJR 1980; 134: 543–552.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 313.
    Pervez NK, Kleinerman J, Kattan M, et al. Pseudomembranous necrotizing bronchial aspergillosis: a variant of invasive aspergillosis in a patient with hemophilia and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis 1985; 131: 961–963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 314.
    Gefter WB, Weingrad TR, Epstein DM, Ochs RH, Miller WT. “Semi-invasive” pulmonary aspergillosis: a new look at the spectrum of Aspergillus infections of the lung. Radiology 1981; 140: 313–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 315.
    Diamond RD, Krzesicki R, Epstein B, Jao W. Damage to hyphal forms of fungi by human leukocytes in vitro: a possible host defense mechanism in aspergillosis and mucormycosis. Am J Pathol 1978; 91: 313–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 316.
    Schaffner A, Douglas H, Braude A. Selective protection against conidia by mononuclear and against mycelia by polymorphonuclear phagocytes in resistance to Aspergillus: obervations on these two lines of defense in vivo and in vitro with human and mouse phagocytes. J Clin Invest 1982; 69: 617–631.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 317.
    Meyer RD, Young LS, Armstrong D, Yu B. Aspergillosis complicating neoplastic disease. Am j Med 1973; 54: 6–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 318.
    Orr DP, Myerowitz RL, Dubois PJ. Patho-radiologic correlation of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in the compromised host. Cancer 1978; 41: 2028–2039.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 319.
    Herbert PA, Bayer AS. Fungal pneumonia (part 4): invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Chest 1981; 80: 220–225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 320.
    Fisher BD, Armstrong D, Yu B, Gold JWM. Invasive aspergillosis: progress in early diagnosis and treatment. Am J Med 1981; 71: 571–577.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 321.
    Gerson SL, Talbot GH, Hurwitz S, Strom BL, Lusk EJ, Cassileth PA. Prolonged granulocytopenia: the major risk factor for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with acute leukemia. Ann Intern Med 1984; 100: 345–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 322.
    Sidransky H, Friedman L. The effect of cortisone and antibiotic agents on experimental pulmonary aspergillosis. Am J Pathol 1959; 35: 169–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 323.
    Davies SF, Sarosi GA. Aspergillosis in the immunosuppressed patient. In: Al-Doory Y, Wagner GE, eds. Aspergillosis. Springfield: Thomas, 1985: 96–114.Google Scholar
  36. 324.
    Brown E, Freedman S, Arbeit R, Come S. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in an apparently nonimmunocompromised host. Am J Med 1980; 69: 624–627.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 325.
    Cooper JAD, Weinbaum DL, Aldrich TK, Mandell GL. Invasive aspergillosis of the lung and pericardium in a nonimmunocompromised 33-year-old man. Am J Med 1981; 71: 903–907.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 326.
    Libshitz HI, Pagani JJ. Aspergillosis and mucormycosis: two types of opportunistic fungal pneumonia. Radiology 1981; 140: 301–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 327.
    Nime FA, Hutchins GM. Oxalosis caused by Aspergillus infection. Johns Hopkins Med J 1973; 133: 183–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 328.
    Kurrein F, Green GH, Rowles SL. Localized deposition of calcium oxalate around a pulmonary Aspergillus niger fungus ball. Am J Clin Pathol 1975; 64: 556–563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 329.
    Pore RS, Larsh HW. Aleuriospore formation in four related Aspergillus species. Mycologia 1967; 59: 318–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 330.
    Schwarz J. Aspergillosis. Pathol Annu 1973; 8: 81–107.Google Scholar
  43. 331.
    Lemos LB, Jensen AB. Pathology of aspergillosis. In: Al-Doory Y, Wagner GE, eds. Aspergillosis. Springfield: Thomas, 1985: 156–195.Google Scholar
  44. 332.
    Khoo TK, Sugai K, Leong TK. Disseminated aspergillosis: case report and review of the world literature. Am J Clin Pathol 1966; 45: 697–703.PubMedGoogle Scholar


  1. 333.
    Baker RD. The phycomycoses. Ann NY Acad Sci 1970; 174: 592–605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 334.
    Hutter RVP. Phycomycetous infection (mucormycosis) in cancer patients: a complication of therapy. Cancer 1959; 12: 330–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 335.
    Straatsma BR, Zimmerman LE, Gass JDM. Phycomycosis: a clinicopathologic study of fifty-one cases. Lab Invest 1962; 11: 963–985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 336.
    Baker RD. Mucormycosis (opportunistic phycomycosis). In: Baker RD, ed. The pathologie anatomy of mycoses: human infection with fungi, actinomycetes and algae. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1971: 832–918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 337.
    Meyer RD, Rosen P, Armstrong D. Phycomycosis complicating leukemia and lymphoma. Ann Intern Med 1972; 77: 871–879.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 338.
    Meyer RD, Armstrong D. Mucormycosis-changing status. CRC Grit Rev Clin Lab Sci 1973; 4: 421–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 339.
    Lehrer RI, moderator. Mucormycosis. Ann Intern Med 1980; 93 (part1): 93–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 340.
    Marchevsky AM, Bottone EJ, Geller SA, Giger DK. The changing spectrum of disease, etiology, and diagnosis of mucormycosis. Hum Pathol 1980; 11: 457–464.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 254.
    F.W. CHANDLER AND J.C. WATTSGoogle Scholar
  10. 341.
    Ferry AP, Abedi S. Diagnosis and management of rhinoorbitocerebral mucormycosis (phycomycosis): a report of 16 personally observed cases. Ophthalmology 1983; 90: 1096–1104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 342.
    Neame P, Rayner D. Mucormycosis: a report on twenty-two cases. Arch Pathol 1960; 70: 261–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 343.
    Lyon DT, Schubert TT, Mantia AG. Phycomycosis of the gastrointestinal tract. Am J Gastroenterol 1979; 72: 379–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 344.
    Murray HW. Pulmonary mucormycosis: one hundred years later. Chest 1977; 72: 1–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 345.
    Baker RD. Pulmonary mucormycosis. Am J Pathol 1956; 32: 287–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 346.
    Murray HW. Pulmonary mucormycosis with massive fatal hemoptysis. Chest 1975; 68: 65–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 347.
    Passamonte PM, Dix JD. Nosocomial pulmonary mucor-mycosis with fatal massive hemoptysis. Am J Med Sci 1985; 289: 65–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 348.
    Bartrum RJ, Watnick M, Herman PG. Roentgenographic findings in pulmonary mucormycosis. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 1973; 117: 810–815.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 349.
    Myerowitz RL. The pathology of opportunistic infections with pathogenetic, diagnostic, and clinical correlations. New York: Raven, 1983: 129–135.Google Scholar
  19. 350.
    Leong ASY. Granulomatous mediastinitis due to Rhizopus species. Am J Clin Pathol 1978; 70: 103–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 351.
    Chandler FW, Watts JC, Kaplan W, Hendry AT, McGinnis MR, Ajello L. Zygomycosis: report of four cases with formation of chlamydoconidia in tissue. Am J Clin Pathol 1985; 84: 99–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 352.
    Espinoza CG, Halkias DG. Pulmonary mucormycosis as a complication of chronic salicylate poisoning. Am J Clin Pathol 1983; 80: 508–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 353.
    Medoff G, Kobayashi GS. Pulmonary mucormycosis. N Engl j Med 1972; 286: 86–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 354.
    Brown JF, Gottlieb LS, McCormick RA. Pulmonary and rhinocerebral mucormycosis: successful outcome with amphotericin B and griseofulvin therapy. Arch Intern Med 1977; 137: 936–938.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 355.
    DeSouza R, MacKinnon S, Spagnolo SV, Fossieck BE. Treatment of localized pulmonary phycomycosis. South Med J 1979; 72: 609–612.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar


  1. 356.
    Drutz DJ. Coccidioidal pneumonia. In: Pennington JE, ed. Respiratory infections: diagnosis and management. New York: Raven, 1983: 353–373.Google Scholar
  2. 357.
    Drutz DJ, Catanzaro A. Coccidioidomycosis: part I. Am Rev Respir Dis 1978; 117: 559–585.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 358.
    Rippon JW. Medical mycology: the pathogenic fungi and the pathogenic actinomycetes. 2d ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1982: 389–427.Google Scholar
  4. 359.
    Drutz DJ, Huppert M. Coccidioidomycosis: factors affecting the host-parasite interaction. J Infect Dis 1983; 147: 372–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 360.
    Meyer PR, Hui AN, Biddle M. Coccidioides immitis meningitis with arthroconidia in cerebrospinal fluid: report of the first case and review of the arthroconidia literature. Hum Pathol 1982; 13: 1136–1138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 361.
    Fiese MJ. Coccidioidomycosis. Springfield: Thomas, 1958.Google Scholar
  7. 362.
    Drutz DJ, Catanzaro A. Coccidioidomycosis: part II. Am Rev Respir Dis 1978; 117: 727–771.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 363.
    Bayer AS. Fungal pneumonias; pulmonary coccidioidal syndromes (part 1): primary and progressive primary coccidioidal pneumonias-diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic considerations. Chest 1981; 79: 575–583.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 364.
    Bayer AS. Fungal pneumonias: pulmonary coccidioidal syndromes (part 2): miliary, nodular, and cavitary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis; chemotherapeutic and surgical considerations. Chest 1981; 79: 686–691.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 365.
    Birsner JW. The roentgen aspects of five hundred cases of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 1954; 72: 556–573.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 366.
    Greendyke WH, Resnick DL, Harvey WC. The varied roentgen manifestations of primary coccidioidomycosis. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 1970; 109: 491–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 367.
    McGahan JP, Graves DS, Palmer PES, Stadalnik RC, Dublin AB. Classic and contemporary imaging of coccidioidomycosis. AJR 1981; 136: 393–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 368.
    Deresinsky SC, Stevens DA. Coccidioidomycosis in compromised hosts. Medicine (Baltimore) 1974; 54: 377395.Google Scholar
  14. 369.
    MacDonald N, Steinhoff MC, Powell KR. Review of coccidioidomycosis in immunocompromised children. Am J Dis Child 1981; 135: 553–556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 370.
    Forbus WD, Bestebreurtje AM. Coccidioidomycosis: a study of 95 cases of the disseminated type with special reference to the pathogenesis of the disease. Milit Surg 1946; 99: 653–719.Google Scholar
  16. 371.
    Huntington RW. Coccidioidomycosis. In: Baker RD, ed. The pathologic anatomy of mycoses: human infection with fungi, actinomycetes, and algae. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1971: 147–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 372.
    Winn WR, Finegold SM, Huntington RW. Coccidioidomycosis with fungemia. In: Ajello L, ed. Coccidioidomycosis: the second symposium on coccidioidomycosis. Tucson: Univ. Arizona Press, 1967: 93–109.Google Scholar
  18. 373.
    Huntington RW, Waldmann WJ, Sargent JA, O’Connell H, Wybel R, Groll D. Pathologic and clinical observations on 142 cases of fatal coccidioidomycosis with necropsy. In: Ajello L, ed. Coccidioidomycosis: the second symposium on coccidioidomycosis. Tucson: Univ. Arizona Press, 1967: 143–167.Google Scholar
  19. 374.
    Putnam JS, Harper WK, Greene JF, Nelson KG, Zurek RC. Coccidioides immitis: a rare cause of pulmonary mycetoma. Am Rev Respir Dis 1975; 112: 733–738.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 375.
    Fee HJ, McAvoy JM, Michals AA, Gold PM. Unusual manifestation of Coccidioides immitis infection. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1977; 74: 548–550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 376.
    Thadepalli H, Salem FA, Mandat AK, Rambhatla K, Einstein HE. Pulmonary mycetoma due to Coccidioides immitis. Chest 1977; 71: 429–430.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 377.
    Rohatgi PK, Schmitt RG. Pulmonary coccidioidal mycetoma. Am J Med Sci 1984; 287: 27–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 378.
    Deppisch LM, Donowho EM. Pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. Am J Clin Pathol 1972; 58: 489–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 379.
    Howard PF, Smith JW. Diagnosis of disseminated coccidioidomycosis by liver biopsy. Arch Intern Med 1983; 143: 1335–1338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 380.
    Bayer AS, Yoshikawa TT, Galpin JE, Guze LB. Unusual syndromes of coccidioidomycosis: diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Medicine (Baltimore) 1976; 55: 131–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 381.
    McClatchie S, Warambo MW, Bremner AD. Myospherulosis: a previously unreported disease? Am J Clin Pathol 1969; 51: 699–704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 382.
    Kyriakos M. Myospherulosis of the paranasal sinuses, nose and middle ear: a possible iatrogenic disease. Am J Clin Pathol 1977; 67: 118–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 383.
    Rosai J. The nature of myospherulosis of the upper respiratory tract. Am J Clin Pathol 1978; 69: 475–481.PubMedGoogle Scholar


  1. 384.
    Jung JY, Salas R, Almond CH, Saab S, Reyna R. The role of surgery in the management of pulmonary monosporiosis: a collective review. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1977; 73: 139–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 385.
    Lutwick LI, Galgiani JN, Johnson RH, Stevens DA. Visceral fungal infections due to Petriellidium boydii (Allesche-ria boydii): in vitro drug sensitivity studies. Am J Med 1976; 61: 632–640.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 386.
    Winston DJ, Jordan MC, Rhodes J. Allescheria boydii infections in the immunosuppressed host. Am J Med 1977; 63: 830–835.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 387.
    McGinnis MR, Padhye AA, Ajello L. Pseudallescheria Negroni et Fischer, 1943 and its later synonym Petriellidium Malloch, 1970. Mycotaxon 1982; 14: 94–102.Google Scholar
  5. 388.
    Arnett JC, Hatch HB. Pulmonary allescheriasis: report of a case and review of the literature. Arch Intern Med 1975; 135: 1250–1253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 389.
    Rippon JW, Carmichael JW. Petriellidiosis (allescheriosis): four unusual cases and review of literature. Mycopathologia 1976; 58: 117–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 390.
    Shih LY, Lee N. Disseminated petriellidiosis (allescheriasis) in a patient with refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. J Clin Pathol 1984; 37: 78–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 391.
    Reddy PC, Christianson CS, Gorelick DF, Larsh HW. Pulmonary monosporiosis: an uncommon pulmonary mycotic infection. Thorax 1969; 24: 722–728.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 392.
    Hainer JW, Ostrow JH, Mackenzie DWR. Pulmonary monosporiosis: report of a case with precipitating antibody. Chest 1974; 66: 601–603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 393.
    Bakerspigel A, Wood T, Burke S. Pulmonary allescheriasis: report of a case from Ontario, Canada. Am J Clin Pathol 1977; 68: 299–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 394.
    Kathuria SK, Rippon J. Non-aspergillus aspergilloma. Am J Clin Pathol 1982; 78: 870–873.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 395.
    Louria DB, Lieberman PH, Collins HS, Blevins A. Pulmonary mycetoma due to Allescheria boydii. Arch Intern Med 1966; 117: 748–751.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 396.
    Travis RE, Ulrich EW, Phillips S. Pulmonary allescheriasis. Ann Intern Med 1961; 54: 141–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 397.
    McCarthy DS, Longbottom JL, Riddell RW, Batten JC. Pulmonary mycetoma due to Allescheria boydii. Am Rev Respir Dis 1969; 100: 213–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 398.
    DeMent SH, Smith RRL, Karp JE, Merz WG. Pulmonary, cardiac, and thyroid involvement in disseminated Pseudallescheria boydii (letter). Arch Pathol Lab Med 1984; 108: 859–861.Google Scholar
  16. 399.
    Enggano IL, Hughes WT, Kalwinsky DK, Pearson TA, Parham DM, Stass SA. Pseudallescheria boydii in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1984; 108: 619–622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 400.
    Smith AG, Crain SM, Dejongh C, Thomas GM, Vigorito RD. Systemic pseudallescheriasis in a patient with acute myelocytic leukemia. Mycopathologia 1985; 90: 85–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 401.
    Walker DH, Adamec T, Krigman M. Disseminated petriellidiosis (allescheriosis). Arch Pathol Lab Med 1978; 102: 158–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 402.
    Saadah HA, Dixon T. Petriellidium boydii (Allescheria boydii): necrotizing pneumonia in a normal host. JAMA 1981; 245: 605–606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 403.
    Alture-Werber E, Edberg SC, Singer JM. Pulmonary infection with Allescheria boydii. Am J Clin Pathol 1976; 66: 1019–1024.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 404.
    Travis LB, Roberts GD, Wilson WR. Clinical significance of Pseudallescheria boydii: a review of 10 years’ experience. Mayo Clin Proc 1985; 60: 531–537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar


  1. 405.
    Young NA, Kwon-Chung KJ, Kubota TT, Jennings AE, Fisher RI. Disseminated infection by Fusarium monili-forme during treatment for malignant lymphoma. J Clin Microbiol 1978; 7: 589–594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 406.
    Wheeler MS, McGinnis MR, Schell WA, Walker DH. Fusarium infection in burned patients. Am J Clin Pathol 1981; 75: 304–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 407.
    Blazar BR, Hurd DD, Snover DC, Alexander JW, McGlave PB. Invasive Fusarium infections in bone marrow transplant recipients. Am J Med 1984; 77: 645–651.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 408.
    Abramowsky CR, Quinn D, Bradford WD, Conant NF. Systemic infection by Fusarium in a burned child: the emergence of a saprophytic strain. J Pediatr 1974; 84: 561–564.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 409.
    Cho CT, Vats TS, Lowman JT, Brandsberg JW, Tosh FE. Fusarium solani infection during treatment for acute leukemia. J Pediatr 1973; 83: 1028–1031.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 410.
    Mutton KJ, Lucas ‘II Harkness JL. Disseminated Fusarium infection. Med J Aust 1980; 2: 624–625.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 411.
    Young CN, Meyers AM. Opportunistic fungal infection by Fusarium oxysporum in a renal transplant patient. Sabouraudia 1979; 17: 219–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 412.
    Gutmann L, Chou SM, Pore RS. Fusariosis, myasthenic syndrome, and aplastic anemia. Neurology 1975; 25: 922–926.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar


  1. 413.
    Rivera R, Cangir A. Trichosporon sepsis and leukemia. Cancer 1975; 36: 1106–1110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 414.
    Evans HL, Kletzel M, Lawson RD, Frankel LS, Hopfer RL. Systemic mycosis due to Trichosporon cutaneum: a report of two additional cases. Cancer 1980; 45: 367–371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 415.
    Yung CW, Hanauer SB, Fretzin D, Rippon JW, Shapiro C, Gonzalez M. Disseminated Trichosporon beigelii (cuta-neum). Cancer 1981; 48: 2107–2111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 416.
    Saul SH, Khachatoorian T, Poorsattar A, et al. Opportunistic Trichosporon pneumonia: association with invasive aspergillosis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1981; 105: 456459.Google Scholar
  5. 417.
    Gardella S, Nomdedeu B, Bombi JA, et al. Fatal funge-mia with arthritic involvement caused by Trichosporon beigelii in a bone marrow transplant recipient (letter). J Infect Dis 1985; 151: 566.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 418.
    Madhaven T, Eisses J. Systemic infections due to Trichosporon cutaneum, an uncommon pathogen (abstr). Am J Clin Pathol 1975; 63: 598.Google Scholar
  7. 419.
    Winston DJ, Balsley GE, Rhodes J, Linne SR. Disseminated Trichosporon capitatum infection in an immunosuppressed host. Arch Intern Med 1977; 137: 1192–1195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 420.
    Kirmani N, Tuazon CU, Geelhoed GW. Disseminated Trichosporon infection: occurrence in an immunosuppressed patient with chronic active hepatitis. Arch Intern Med 1980; 140: 277–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 421.
    Jameson B, Carter RL, Watson JG, Hay RJ. An unexpected fungal infection in a patient with leukaemia. J Clin Pathol 1981; 34: 267–270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 422.
    Gold JWM, Poston W, Mertelsmann R, et al. Systemic infection with Trichosporon cutaneum in a patient with acute leukemia. Cancer 1981; 48: 2163–2167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 423.
    Manzella JP, Berman IJ, Kukrika MD. Trichosporon beigelii fungemia and cutaneous dissemination. Arch Dermatol 1982; 118: 343–345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 424.
    Brahn E, Leonard PA. Trichosporon cutaneum endocarditis: a sequela of intravenous drug abuse. Am J Clin Pathol 1982; 78: 792–794.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 425.
    Libertin CR, Davies NJ, Halper J, Edson RS, Roberts GD. Invasive disease caused by Trichosporon beigelii. Mayo Clin Proc 1983; 58: 684–686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 426.
    Haupt HM, Merz WG, Beschorner WE, Vaughan WP, Saral R. Colonization and infection with Trichosporon species in the immunosuppressed host. J Infect Dis 1983; 147: 199–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar


  1. 427.
    Morenz J. Geotrichosis. In: Baker RD, ed. The pathologic anatomy of mycoses: human infection with fungi, actinomycetes and algae. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1971: 919–952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 428.
    Sheehy TW, Honeycutt BK, Spency JT. Geotrichum septicemia. JAMA 1976; 235: 1035–1037.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 429.
    Webster BH. Bronchopulmonary geotrichosis. Dis Chest 1959; 35: 273–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 430.
    Ross JD, Reid KDG, Speirs CF. Bronchopulmonary geotrichosis with severe asthma. Br Med J 1962; 1: 1400 1402.Google Scholar
  5. 431.
    Ghamande AR, Landis FB, Snider GL. Bronchial geotrichosis with fungemia complicating bronchial carcinoma. Chest 1971; 59: 98–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 432.
    Fishbach RS, White ML, Finegold SM. Bronchopulmonary geotrichosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1973; 108: 1388 1392.Google Scholar
  7. 433.
    Chang WWL, Buerger L. Disseminated geotrichosis. Arch Intern Med 1964; 113: 356–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 434.
    Jagirdar J, Geller SA, Bottone EJ. Geotrichum candidum as a tissue invasive human pathogen. Hum Pathol 1981; 12: 668–671.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 435.
    Hamilton-Miller JMT. A comparative in vitro study of amphotericin B, clotrimazole and 5-fluorocytosine against clinically isolated yeasts. Sabouraudia 1972; 10: 276–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Penicilliosis Marneffei

  1. 436.
    Pitt JI. The genus Penicillium and its teleomorphic states Eupenicillium and Talaromyces. New York: Academic Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  2. 437.
    Deng Z, Connor DH. Progressive disseminated penicilliosis caused by Penicillium marneffei. Report of eight cases and differentiation of the causative organism from Histoplasma capsulatum. Am J Clin Pathol 1985; 84: 323–327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 438.
    Segretain G. Description d’une nouvelle espece de penicillium: Penicillium marneffei, n. sp. Bull Soc Mycol Fr 1959; 75: 412–416.Google Scholar
  4. 439.
    DiSalvo AF, Fickling AM, Ajello L. Infection caused by Penicillium marneffei: description of first natural infection in man. Am J Clin Pathol 1973; 60: 259–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 440.
    Pautler KB, Padhye AA, Ajello L. Imported penicilliosis marneffei in the United States: report of a second human infection. Sabouraudia 1984; 22: 433–438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 441.
    Jayanetra P, Nitiyanant P, Ajello L, et al. Penicilliosis marneffei in Thailand: report of five human cases. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1984; 33: 637–644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 442.
    So SY, Chau PY, Jones BM, et al. A case of invasive penicilliosis in Hong Kong with immunologic evaluation. Am Rev Respir Dis 1985; 131: 662–665.PubMedGoogle Scholar


  1. 443.
    Ajello L. Phaeohyphomycosis: definition and etiology. In: Mycoses. Sci Pub 304. Washington DC: Pan American Health Organization, 1975: 126–133.Google Scholar
  2. 444.
    McGinnis MR. Human pathogenic species of Exophiala, Phialophora and Wangiella. In: The black and white yeasts. Sci Pub 356. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization, 1978: 37–59.Google Scholar
  3. 445.
    McGinnis MR. Chromoblastomycosis and phaeohyphomycosis: new concepts, diagnosis, and mycology. J Am Acad Dermatol 1983; 8: 1–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 446.
    Ichinose H. Subcutaneous abscesses due to brown fungi. In: Baker RD, ed. The pathologic anatomy of mycoses: human infection with fungi, actinomycetes and algae. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1971: 719–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 447.
    Ziefer A, Connor DH. Phaeomycotic cyst. A clinico-pathologic study of twenty-five patients. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1980; 29: 901–911.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 448.
    Bambirra EA, Miranda D, Nogueira AMF, Barbosa CSP. Phaeohyphomycotic cyst: a clinicopathologic study of the first four cases described from Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1983; 32: 794–798.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 449.
    Moskowitz LB, Cleary TJ, McGinnis MR, Thomson CB. Phialophora richardsiae in a lesion appearing as a giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1983; 107: 374–376.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 450.
    Tschen JA, Knox JM, McGavran MH, Duncan WC. Chromomycosis, the association of fungal elements and wood splinters. Arch Dermatol 1984; 120: 107–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 451.
    Riley O Jr, Mann SH. Brain abscess caused by Cladosporium trichoides: review of 3 cases and report of fourth case. Am J Clin Pathol 1960; 33: 525–531.Google Scholar
  10. 452.
    Crichlow DK, Enrile FT, Memon MY. Cerebellar abscess due to Cladosporium trichoides (bantianum): case report. Am J Clin Pathol 1973; 60: 416–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 453.
    Chandramukki A, Ramadevi MG, Shankar SK. Cerebral cladosporiosis-a neuropathological and microbiological study. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 1983; 85: 245–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 454.
    Seaworth BJ, Kwon-Chung KJ, Hamilton JD, Perfect JR. Brain abscess caused by a variety of Cladosporium trichoides. Am J Clin Pathol 1983; 79: 747–752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 455.
    Fink JN, Schlueter DP, Barboriak JJ. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to exposure to Alternaria. Chest 1973; 63: 495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 456.
    McAleer R, Kroenert DB, Elder JL, Froudist JH. Allergic bronchopulmonary disease caused by Curvularia lunata and Drechslera hawaiiensis. Thorax 1981; 36: 338–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 457.
    Limsila T, Stituimankaru T, Thasnakorn P. Pulmonary cladosporoma. Report of a case. J Med Assoc Thailand 1970; 53: 586–590.Google Scholar
  16. 458.
    Lampert RP, Hutto JH, Donnelly WH, Shulman ST. Pulmonary and cerebral mycetoma caused by Curvularia pallescens. J Pediatr 1977; 91: 603–605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 459.
    de la Monte SM, Hutchins GM. Disseminated Curvularia infection. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1985; 109: 872–874.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 460.
    Lobritz RW, Roberts TH, Marraro RV, Carlton PK, Thorp DJ. Granulomatous pulmonary disease secondary to Alternaria. JAMA 1979; 241: 596–597.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 461.
    Rohwedder JJ, Simmons JL, Colfer H, Gatmaitan B. Disseminated Curvularia lunata infection in a football player. Arch Intern Med 1979; 139: 940–941.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar


  1. 462.
    Kodousek R. Adiaspiromycosis. Acta Univ Palacki Olomuc Fac Med 1974; 70: 5–68.Google Scholar
  2. 463.
    Schwarz J. Adiaspiromycosis. Pathol Annu 1978; 13: 4153.Google Scholar
  3. 464.
    Emmons CW, Binford CH, Utz JP, Kwon-Chung KJ. Medical mycology. 3d ed. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1977: 493–505.Google Scholar
  4. 465.
    Cueva JA, Little MD. Emmonsia crescens infection (adiaspiromycosis) in man in Honduras. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1971; 20: 282–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 466.
    Kodousek R, Vortel V, Fingerland A, et al. Pulmonary adiaspiromycosis in man caused by Emmonsia crescens: report of a unique case. Am J Clin Pathol 1971; 56: 394399.Google Scholar
  6. 467.
    Watts JC, Callaway CS, Chandler FW, Kaplan W. Human pulmonary adiaspiromycosis. Arch Pathol 1975; 99: 11–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar


  1. 468.
    Karunaratne WAE. Rhinosporidiosis in man. London: Athlone, 1964.Google Scholar
  2. 469.
    Rippon JW. Medical mycology: the pathogenic fungi and the pathogenic actinomycetes. 2d ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1982: 325–334.Google Scholar
  3. 470.
    Rajam RV, Viswanathan GS, Rao AR, Rangiah PN, Anguli VS. Rhinosporidiosis: a study with report of a fatal case of systemic dissemination. Indian J Surg 1955; 17: 269–298.Google Scholar
  4. 471.
    Agrawal S, Sharma KD, Shrivastava JB. Generalized rhinosporidiosis with visceral involvement: report of a case. Arch Dermatol 1959; 80: 22–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 472.
    Bader G, Grueber HLE. Histochemical studies of Rhinosporidium seeberi. Virchows Arch [Pathol Anat] 1970; 350: 76–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 473.
    Kannan-Kutty M, Teh EC. Rhinosporidium seeberi: an electron microscopy study of its life cycle. Pathology 1974; 6: 63–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 474.
    Kannan-Kutty M, Teh EC. Rhinosporidium seeberi: an ultrastructural study of its endosporulation phase and trophocyte phase. Arch Pathol 1975; 99: 51–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 475.
    Savino DF, Margo CE. Conjunctival rhinosporidiosis: light and electron microscopic study. Ophthalmology 1983; 90: 1482–1489.PubMedGoogle Scholar


  1. 476.
    Kaplan W. Protothecosis and infections caused by morphologically similar green algae. In: The black and white yeasts. Sci Pub 356. Washington DC: Pan American Health Association, 1978: 218–232.Google Scholar
  2. 477.
    Sudman MS. Protothecosis: a critical review. Am J Clin Pathol 1974; 61: 10–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 478.
    Sudman MS, Kaplan W. Identification of the Prototheca species by immunofluorescence. Appl Microbiol 1973; 25: 981–990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 479.
    Conner DH, Gibson DW, Ziefer A. Diagnostic features of three unusual infections: micronemiasis, pheomycotic cyst, and protothecosis. In: Majno G, Cotran RS, Kaufman N, eds. Current topics in inflammation and infection. International Academy of Pathology monograph no. 23. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1982: 205–239.Google Scholar
  5. 480.
    Davies RR, Wilkinson JL. Human protothecosis: supplementary studies. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1967; 61: 11 2115.Google Scholar
  6. 481.
    Cox GE, Wilson JD, Brown P. Protothecosis: a case of disseminated algal infection. Lancet 1974; 2: 379–382.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 482.
    Venezio FR, Lavoo E, Williams JW, et al. Progressive cutaneous protothecosis. Am J Clin Pathol 1982; 77: 485–493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 483.
    Nosanchuk JS, Greenberg RD. Protothecosis of the olecranon bursa caused by achloric algae. Am J Clin Pathol 1973; 59: 567–573.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francis W. Chandler
  • John C. Watts

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations