• Russell A. HarleyJr.


Nicotiana tabacum is America’s most famous plant. There is little evidence to support the thesis that the mandrake of the Old Testament (Genesis 30) was tobacco, but the evidence is strong that tobacco was smoked 2,000 years ago in the New World by Mayan Indians. Columbus and other early European explorers described Indians chewing tobacco, using tobacco as snuff, and smoking tobacco in pipes and large and small cigars. The name was derived from the Haitian Indian word for a forked tubular inhaler called a “tabac”1 (Fig. 23-1). The forked end of the tabac was placed in the nostrils while the other end held the burning leaf or snuff. Central and South American Indians called tobacco “zig,” and the word for smoking was “zikar.” Two of Christopher Columbus’ men, Luis de Torres and Jerez, while searching for the great Chinese Khan found Indian men and women smoking cigars on Hispanola. Jerez bears the dubious honor of being described as the first European habituated to tobacco.2,3


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Tobacco Smoke Pulmonary Emphysema Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter Smoke Particle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Stewart GG. A history of the medicinal use of tobacco 1492–1860. Med His 1967; 11: 228 – 268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Massie IE. Tobacco leaf-a look at history. Recent ad- 19. vances in tobacco science. Vol. 7. Tobacco leaf chemistry: its origin, understanding, and current trends. Thirty-fifth Tobacco Chemists Research Conference, October 1981, 20. Winston-Salem, North Carolina.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ochsner A. Smoking and health. New York: Julian Messner, 1954. 21.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Best J. Economic interests and the vindication of deviance: tobacco in seventeenth century Europe. Soc Q 1979; 20: 171 – 182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Van Lancker JL. Smoking and disease. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph Series No. 17. Research on smoking behavior. 1977: 230 – 280.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Christen AG, Swanson BZ, Glover ED, Henderson AH. Smokeless tobacco: the folklore and social history of sniffing, sneezing, dipping, and chewing. J Am Dent Assoc 24. 1982; 105: 821 – 829.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Voges E. Pleasures of tobacco-How it all began and the whole story. Tobacco encyclopedia. Tob Coun Int 25. 1984; 1: 80 – 82.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wassen SH. Anthropological survey of the use of South American snuffs. Ethnopharmacologic search for psychoactive drugs. PHS Publ. No. 1645. Washington DC: 26. US Government Printing Office, 1967: 233 – 289.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Duran D. Historia de las indias de Nueva Espana. Libro de las ritos y ceremonias en las fiestas de las dioses y celebracion de ellas. Mexico: Editorial Porrua, 1967. Quoted by: Elferink JGR. The narcotic and hallucinogenic use of tobacco in pre-Columbian Central America. J Ethnopharmacol 1983; 7: 111 – 122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 9A.
    Smoking and health: A report of the Surgeon General. 28. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office, 1979: 11 – 5.Google Scholar
  11. 10.
    Baker RR. Product formation mechanisms inside a burning cigarette. Prog Energy Combust Sci 1981; 7: 135 – 153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 11.
    McCusker K, Hiller FC, Wilson JD, Mazunder MK, Bone R. Aerodynamic sizing of tobacco smoke particulate from commercial cigarettes. Arch Environ Health 1983; 38: 215 – 218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 12.
    Hinds WC. Size characteristics of cigarette smoke. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 1978: 39: 48 – 54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 13.
    Okada T, Matsunuma K. Determination of particle-size distribution and concentration of cigarette smoke by a light-scattering method. J Colloid Interface Sci 1974; 48: 461 – 469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 14.
    Morie GP, Baggett MS. Observations on the distribution of certain tobacco smoke components with respect to particle size. Beitr Tobakforsch 1977; 9: 72 – 78.Google Scholar
  16. 15.
    Keith CH, Derrick JC. Measurement of the particle size distribution and concentration of cigarette smoke by the “conifuge. ” J Colloid Sci 1960; 14: 340 – 356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 16.
    Hinds W, First MW, Huber GL, Shea JW. A method for measuring respiratory deposition of cigarette smoke during smoking. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 1983; 44: 113 – 118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 17.
    Phalen RF. Inhalation studies: foundations and techniques. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1984; 7 – 9.Google Scholar
  19. 18.
    Weibel ER. Design and structure of the human lung. In: Fishman AP, ed. Pulmonary diseases and disorders. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1980: 224 – 271.Google Scholar
  20. 19.
    Horsefield K, Dart G, Olsen DE, Cumming G. Models of the human bronchial tree. J Appl Physiol 1971; 31: 207 – 217.Google Scholar
  21. 20.
    Simani AS, Inoue S, Hogg JC. Penetration of the respiratory epithelium of guinea pigs following exposure to cigarette smoke. Lab Invest 1974; 31: 75 – 81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 21.
    The health consequences of smoking: chronic obstructive lung disease: A report of the Surgeon General. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office, 1984: 422.Google Scholar
  23. 22.
    Hiller FC, McCusker KT, Mazumder MK, Wilson JD, Bone RC. Deposition of sidestream cigarette smoke in the human respiratory tract. Am Rev Respir Dis 1982; 125: 406–408.Google Scholar
  24. 23.
    West JB. Ventilation/blood flow and gas exchange. Oxford: Blackwell, 1965: 28 – 30.Google Scholar
  25. 24.
    Elson LA, Betts TE. Sugar content of the tobacco and pH of the smoke in relation to lung cancer risks of cigarette smoking. JNCI 1972; 48: 1885 – 1890.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 25.
    Stedman RL, Lakritz L, Strange ED. Composition studies on tobacco. XXXIII. Changes in smoke composition and filtration by artificial alteration of smoke pH: pyridine and nicotine. Beit Tabakforsch 1969; 5: 13 – 17.Google Scholar
  27. 26.
    Hecht SS, Carmella S, Hoffman D. Chemical studies on tobacco smoke. LIV. Determinations of hydroxybenzyl alcohols and hydroxyphenyl ethanols in tobacco smoke. J Anal Toxicol 1978; 2: 56 – 59.Google Scholar
  28. 27.
    Bock FG, Swain AP, Steadman RL. Composition studies on tobacco. XLIV. Tumor-promoting activity of subfractions of the weak acid fraction of cigarette smoke condensate. JNCI 1971; 47: 429 – 436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 28.
    Schmeltz I, Hoffman D. Nitrogen-containing compounds in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Chem Rev 1977; 77: 295 – 311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 29.
    Hoffman D, Wynder EL. A study of tobacco carcinogenesis. XI. Tumor initiators, tumor accelerators, and tumor promoting activity of condensate fractions. Cancer 46. 1971; 27: 848 – 864.Google Scholar
  31. 30.
    Hecht SS, Thorne RL, Maronpot RR, Hoffman D. A study of tobacco carcinogenesis. XIII. Tumor-promoting subfractions of the weakly acidic fraction. JNCI 1975; 47. 55: 1329 – 1336.Google Scholar
  32. 31.
    Taylor P. Ganglionic stimulating and blocking agents. In: Gilman AG, Goodman LS, Gilman A, eds. The phar- 48. macological basis of therapeutics. New York: Macmillan, 1980; 211 – 219.Google Scholar
  33. 32.
    Brody AR, Craighead JE. Cytoplasmic inclusions in pul- 49. monary macrophages of cigarette smokers. Lab Invest 1975; 32: 125 – 132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 33.
    Fletcher CM, ed. Terminology, definitions, and classification of chronic pulmonary emphysema and related condi- 50. tions. A report of the conclusions of a CIBA guest symposium. Thorax 1959; 14: 286 – 299.Google Scholar
  35. 34.
    Niewoehner DE, Kleinerman J, Rice DB. Pathologic 51. changes in the peripheral airways of young cigarette smokers. N Engl J Med 1974; 291: 755 – 758.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 35.
    Waters ATH. Emphysema of the lungs. London: Chur- 52. chill, 1862.Google Scholar
  37. 36.
    Laurell CB, Ericksson S. The electrophoretic alpha glob- 53. lin pattern of serum. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1963; 15: 132–140. 54.Google Scholar
  38. 37.
    Gross P, Babyak MA, Tolker E, Kaschak M. Enzymatically produced pulmonary emphysema. A preliminary report. J Occup Med 1964; 6: 481 – 484.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 38.
    Gross P, Pfitzer EA, Tolker E, Babyak MA, Kaschak M. Experimental emphysema: its production with papain in normal and silicotic rats. Arch Environ Health 1965– 55. 11: 50 – 58.Google Scholar
  40. 39.
    Marco V, Mass B, Meranze DR, Weinbaum G, Kimbel 56. P. Induction of experimental emphysema in dogs using leukocyte homogenates. Am Rev Respir Dis 1971;104:– 57. 595 – 598.Google Scholar
  41. 40.
    Janoff A. Elastase-like proteases of human granulocytes and alveolar macrophages. In: Mittman C, ed. Pulmonary emphysema and proteolysis. New York: Academic Press, 58. 1972: 205 – 224.Google Scholar
  42. 41.
    Senior RM, Tegner H, Kuhn C, Ohlsson K, Starcher BC, Pierce JA. The induction of pulmonary emphysema 59. with human leukocyte elastase. Am Rev Respir Dis 1977; 116: 469–479. 60.Google Scholar
  43. 42.
    Janoff A. Elastases and emphysema. Current assessment of the protease-antiprotease hypothesis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1985; 132: 417 – 433.Google Scholar
  44. 43.
    Hunninghake GW, Crystal RG. Cigarette smoking and lung destruction: accumulation of neutrophils in the lungs of cigarette smokers. Am Rev Respir Dis 1983– 61. 128: 833 – 838.Google Scholar
  45. 44.
    Hale KA, Niewoehner DE, Cosio MG. Morphologic changes in the muscular pulmonary arteries: relationship to cigarette smoking, airways disease and emphysema. 62. Am Rev Respir Dis 1980; 122: 273 – 278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 45.
    Auerbach O, Hammond EC, Kirman D, Garfinkel L. Emphysema produced in dogs by cigarette smoking. JAMA 1967; 199: 89 – 94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 46.
    Zwicker GM, Filipy RE, Park JF, Loscutoff SM, Kagan HA, Stevens DL. Clinical and pathological effects of cigarette smoke exposure in beagle dogs. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1978; 102: 623 – 628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 47.
    Hoidal JR, Niewoehner DE. Cigarette smoke inhalation potentiates elastase-induced emphysema in hamsters. Am Rev Respir Dis 1983; 127: 478 – 481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 48.
    Cigarette smoking and health: official statement of the American Thoracic Society. American Lung Association, 1984.Google Scholar
  50. 49.
    Hirayama T. Smoking in relation to the death rates of 265,118 men and women in Japan. Tokyo, National Cancer Center, Research Institute, Epidemiology Division, 1967.Google Scholar
  51. 50.
    Best EWR, Josie GH, Walker CB. A Canadian study of mortality in relation to smoking habits. Can J Public Health 1961; 52: 99 – 106.Google Scholar
  52. 51.
    Doll R, Peto R. Mortality in relation to smoking: 20 years observation on male British doctors. Br. Med J 1976; 2: 1525 – 1536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 52.
    Hammond EC, Seidman H. Smoking and cancer in the United States. Prey Med 1980; 9: 169 – 173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 53.
    Redmond DE. Tobacco and cancer: the first clinical report, 1761. N Engl J Med 1970; 282: 18 – 23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 54.
    Soemmerring ST. De morbis vasorum absorbentium corporis humani. Pars pathologica, P. 109. Verrentrapp et Wener, Traiecti ad Moenum 1795. Quoted by Shimkin MB, Triolo VA. History of chemical carcinogenesis: some prospective remarks. Prog Exp Tumor Res 1969; 2: 120.Google Scholar
  56. 55.
    Wynder EL, Stellman SD. Comparative epidemiology of tobacco-related cancers. Cancer Res 1977; 37: 4608 – 4622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 56.
    Doll R. Etiology of lung cancer. Adv Cancer Res 1955; 3: 1 – 50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 57.
    Cederlof R, Frieberg L, Lundman T. The interactions of smoking, environment and heredity and their implications for disease etiology. Acta Med Scand [Suppl] 1977; 612: 1 – 128.Google Scholar
  59. 58.
    Repace JL, Lowrey AH. A quantitative estimate of nonsmokers’ lung cancer risk from passive smoking. Environ Int1985; 1: 3 – 22.Google Scholar
  60. 59.
    Weiss ST. Passive smoking and lung cancer. Am Rev Respir Dis 1986; 133: 1 – 3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 60.
    Kahn HA. The Dorn study of smoking and mortality among U.S. veterans: report on eight and one-half years of observation. In: Haenszel W, ed. Epidemiological approaches to the study of cancer and other chronic diseases. National Cancer Institute Monograph No. 19. US Public Health Service, 1966: 1 – 125.Google Scholar
  62. 61.
    Thurlbeck WM, Ryder RC, Sternby N. A comparative study of the severity of emphysema in necropsy populations in three different countries. Am Rev Respir Dis 1974; 109: 239 – 248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 62.
    Pratt PC, Vollmer RT, Miller JA. Prevalence and severity of morphologic emphysema and bronchitis in nontextile and cotton textile workers. Chest 1980; 77: 323 – 325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 63.
    Merchant JA, Lumsden JC, Kilburn KH, et al. An industrial study of the biological effects of cotton dust and 70. cigarette smoke exposure. J Occup Med 1973; 15: 212 – 221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 64.
    Hammond EC, Selikoff IJ, Seidman H. Asbestos expo- 71. sure, cigarette smoking and death rates. Ann NY Acad Sci 1970; 330: 473 – 490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 65.
    Saracci R. Asbestos and lung cancer: an analysis of the 72. epidemiological evidence on the asbestos-smoking interaction. Int J Cancer 1977; 20: 323 – 331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 66.
    McFadden D, Wright JL, Wiggs B, Churg A. Smoking 73. inhibits asbestos clearance. Am Rev Respir Dis 1986; 133: 372 – 374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 67.
    Burns DM, ed. Asbestos, smoking and disease. The scien- 74. tific evidence. Boston: Commercial Union Insurance Companies, 1982.Google Scholar
  69. 68.
    Norman-Taylor W, Dickinson VA. Dangers for children in smoking families. Community Med (London) 1972– 76. 128: 32 – 33.Google Scholar
  70. 69.
    Colley JRT, Holland WW, Corkhill RT. Influence of pas- 77. sive smoking and parental phlegm on pneumonia and bronchitis in early childhood. Lancet 1974; 2: 1031 – 1034.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 70.
    Cameron P, Kostin JS, Zahs JM, et al. The health of smokers’ and nonsmokers’ children. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1969; 43: 336 – 341.Google Scholar
  72. 71.
    Tager IB, Wass ST, Rosner B, Speizer FE. Effect of parental cigarette smoking on the pulmonary function of children. Am J Epidemiol 1979; 110: 15 – 26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 72.
    The health consequences of smoking: chronic obstructive lung disease. A report of the surgeon general. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office, 1984.Google Scholar
  74. 73.
    Costabel U, Bross KJ, Reuterc, Ruhle K, Matthys H. Alterations in immunoregulatory T-cell subsets in cigarette smokers. Chest 1986; 90: 39 – 44.Google Scholar
  75. 74.
    Schultz JM. Perspectives on the economic magnitude of cigarette smoking. NY State J Med 1985; 85: 302 – 306.Google Scholar
  76. 75.
    Warner KE. The economics of smoking: dollars and sense. NY State J Med 1983; 83: 1273 – 1274.Google Scholar
  77. 76.
    Fielding JE. Smoking: health effects and control. N Engl J Med 1985; 313: 491 – 498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 77.
    Blum A, ed. The cigarette underworld. Secaucus: Lyle-Stuart, 1985; 70 – 71.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Russell A. HarleyJr.

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations