To live, one must breathe continuously. For the incessant inspiratory and expiratory movements of life, the lung has to be sturdy and efficient for gas exchange. The lung is unique among all internal organs in that it exposes itself directly and constantly to the surrounding atmosphere. Because it is requisite for life, it has to be protected vigilantly. Although the lung is designed to maintain life with minimum effort, it also needs to respond to urgent needs, increasing its basic rates of function 10-fold or more within seconds in life-threatening situations.


Mesothelial Cell Ciliated Cell Mucous Cell Bronchial Artery Alveolar Wall 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Murray JF. The normal lung. 2d ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1986.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nagaishi C. Functional anatomy and histology of the lung. Tokyo: Igaku Shoin, 1972.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hayek VH. The human lung. ( Krahl VE, trans.) New York: Hafner, 1960.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Weibel ER. Design and structure of the human lung. In: Fishman AP, ed. Pulmonary diseases and disorders. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1980: 224–271.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Thurlbeck WM, Wang NS. The structure of the lungs. In: Widdicombe JG, ed. Respiratory physiology. Physiology Series 1, Vol. 2. MTP International Review of Science, 1974: 1–30.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kuhn C. Ciliated and Clara cells. In: Bouhuys A, ed. Lung cells in disease. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1976: 91–108.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Crapo JD, Barry BE, Gehr P, Bachofen M, Weibel ER. Cell number and cell characteristics of the normal human lung. Am Rev Respir Dis 1982; 125: 740–745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gail DB, Lenfant CJM. Cells of the lung: Biology and clinical implication. Am Rev Respir Dis 1983; 127: 366367.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gehr P, Bachofen M, Weibel ER. The normal human lung: Ultrastructure and morphometric estimation of diffusing capacity. Respir Physiol 1978; 32: 121–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Macklem PT. Airway obstructive and collateral ventilation. Physiol Rev 1971; 51: 368–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ryan US. Structural bases for metabolic activity. Annu Rev Physiol 1982; 44: 223–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Breeze RG, Wheeldon EB. The cells of the pulmonary airways Am Rev Respir Dis 1977; 116: 705–777.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Meyrick B, Reid L. The alveolar wall. Br J Dis Chest 1970; 64: 121–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lauweryns JM, Peuskens JC. Neuroepithelial bodies (neuroreceptor or secretory organs?) in human infant bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium. Anat Rec 1972; 172: 471–482.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lauweryns JM, Baert JH. Alveolar clearance and the role of the pulmonary lymphatics. Am Rev Respir Dis 1977; 115: 625–683.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lauweryns JM. The blood and lymphatic microcirculation of the lung. Pathol Annu 1971; 6: 365–415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wang NS. Anatomy and physiology of the pleural space. In: Light RW, ed. Symposium on pleural diseases. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1985: 3–16.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nai-San Wang

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations