Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis—Histiocytosis X

  • Samuel P. Hammar


The lung is the site of a variety of complex inflammatory reactions. In many instances the inflammation is a normal reaction against various infectious agents, such as bacteria and viruses, or is a response to necrotic tissue, such as infarcted lung parenchyma or degenerating tumor. In extrinsic allergic alveolitis and possibly pulmonary histiocytosis X, the inflammatory reaction characteristic of these two conditions is thought to represent a hypersensitivity process mediated by immunoglobulins, lymphokines, and immune effector cells. Although the four immunologic responses described by Gell and Coombs1 (Fig. 14-1) are often used in characterizing various inflammatory reactions in the lungs, the immunopathogenesis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis and pulmonary histiocytosis X remains poorly understood.


Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Mycosis Fungoides Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Systemic Mastocytosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Gell RRA, Coombs PGH. Classification of allergic reactions responsible for clinical hypersensitivity disease. In: Gell PGH, Coombs RRA, eds. Clinical aspects of immunology. 2d ed. Oxford, Blackwell, 1968: 575–596.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Campbell JM. Acute symptoms following work with hay. Br Med J 1932; 2: 1143–1144.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fawcitt R. Fungoid conditions of the lung. Br J Radiol 1936;9: 172–195; 354–378.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tornell E. Thresher’s lung. Acta Med Scand. 1946; 125: 191–219.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pepys J, Riddell RW, Citron KM, Clayton YM. Precipitins against extracts of hay and moulds in the serum of patients with farmer’s lung, aspergillosis, asthma and sarcoidosis. Thorax 1962; 17: 366–374.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pepys J, Longbotton JL, Jenkins PA. Vegetable dust pneumoconiosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1964; 89: 842–858.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Williams JV. Inhalation tests with hay and fungi in patients with farmer’s lung. Acta Allergol 1961; 16: 77–78.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Williams JV. Inhalation and skin tests with extracts of 413 hay and fungi in farmer’s lung. Thorax 1963; 18: 182–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Corbaz R, Gregory PH, Lacey ME. Thermophilic and mesophilic actinomycetes in mouldy hay. J Gen Microbiol 1963; 32: 449–454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gregory PH, Fetenstein GN, Lacey ME, Skinner FA, Pepys J, Jenkins PA. Farmers lung disease: the development of antigens in moulding hays. J Gen Microbiol 1964; 36: 429–439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pepys J. Hypersensitivity to inhaled organic antigens. J Coll Physicians 1967; 2: 42–28.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sostman HD, Matthay RD, Putman CE. Cytotoxic drug-induced lung disease. Am J Med 1977; 62: 608–615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Farney RJ, Morris AH, Armstrong JD, Hammar S. Diffuse pulmonary disease after therapy with nitrogen mustard, vincristine, procarabazine and prednisone. Am Rev Respir Dis 1977; 115: 135–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Winterbauer RH, Wilske KR, Wheelis RF. Diffuse pulmonary injury associated with gold treatment. N Engl J Med 1976; 294: 919–921.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Soda K, Ando M, Shimazu K, Sakata T, Yoshida K, Araki S. Different classes of antibody activities to Trichosporon cutaneum antigen in summer-type hypersensitivity pneumonitis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Am Rev Respir Dis 1986; 133: 83–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Banaszak EF, Theide WH, Fink JN. Hypersensitivity pneumonia due to contamination of an air conditioner. N Engl J Med 1970; 283: 271–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fink JN, Banaszak EF, Thiede WH, Barboiak B. Interstitial pneumonitis due to hypersensitivity to an organism contaminating a heating system. Ann Intern Med 1971; 74: 80–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pickering CAC, Moore WKS, Lacey J, Holford-Stevens VC, Pepys J. Investigation of a respiratory disease associated with an air conditioning system. Clin Allergy 1976; 6: 109–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kumar P, Leech S. Hypersensitivity pneumonia due to contamination of a car air conditioner. N Engl J Med 1981; 305: 1531–1532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Friend JAR, Gaddie J, Palmer KNV, Pickering CAC, Pepys J. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis and contaminated cooling-water in a factory machine. Lancet 1977; 1: 297–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Grant INB, Blyt W, Wardrop VE, Gordon RM, Pearson JCG, Mair A. Prevalence of farmer’s lung in Scotland: a pilot survey. Br Med J 1972: 1: 530–534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Madsen D, Klock LE, Wenzel FJ, Robbins JL, Schmidt CD. The prevalence of farmer’s lung in an agricultural population. Am Rev Respir Dis 1976; 113: 171–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Salvaggio JE, Karr RM. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Chest 1979; 75 (Suppl): 270–274.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hapke EJ, Seal RME, Thomas GO. Farmer’s lung: a clinical, radiographic and serological correlation of acute and chronic stages. Thorax 1968; 23: 451–468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hargreave FE, Hinson KF, Reid L, Simon G, McCartney DS. The radiological appearances of allergic alveolitis due to bird sensitivity (bird fancier’s lung). Clin Radiol 1972; 23: 1–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mokare S, Ikonen M, Haahtela T. Radiologic findings in farmer’s lung: prognosis and correlation to lung function. Chest 1985; 87: 460–466.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fink JN. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1984; 74: 1–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hansen PJ, Penny R. Pigeon breeders disease. Study of the cell-mediated response to pigeon antigens by the lymphocyte culture technique. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1974; 47: 498–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fink JN, Moore VL, Barboriak JJ. Cell-mediated hypersensitivity in pigeon breeders. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1975; 49: 831–836.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pepys J. Hypersensitivity diseases of the lungs due to fungi and organic dusts. Monogr Allergy 1969; 4: 1–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Uhr JW. Delayed hypersensitivity. Physiol Rev 1966; 46: 359–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fink JN, Tebo T, Baraboriak JJ. Characterization of human precipitating antibody to inhaled antigens. J Immunol 1969; 103: 244–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fink JN, Barboriak JJ, Sosman Al Immunologic studies of pigeon breeder’s disease. J Allergy 1967; 39: 214–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Moore VL, Fink JN. Immunologic studies in hypersensitivity pneumonitis: quantitative precipitins and complement-fixing antibodies in symptomatic and asymptomatic pigeon breeders. J Lab Clin Med 1975; 85: 540–545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Reyes CN, Wenzel FJ, Lawton BR, Emanuel DA. The pulmonary pathology of farmer’s lung disease. Chest 1982; 81: 142–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Barrowcliff DF, Arbuster PG. Farmer’s lung: a study of an early acute fatal case. Thorax 1968; 23: 490–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ghose T, Bandrigan P, Milleen R, Dill J. Immunopathological studies in patients with farmer’s lung. Clin Allergy 1974; 4: 119–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Galvanico NJ, Ambegaonkar SP, Schlueter DP, Fink JN. Immunoglobulin levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from pigeon breeders. J Lab Clin Med 1980; 96: 129–140.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Patterson R, Wang JLF, Fink JN, Calvanico JN, Roberts ME. IgA and IgG antibody activities of serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from symptomatic and asymptomatic pigeon breeders. Am Rev Respir Dis 1979; 120: 1113–1118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Reynolds HY, Fulmer JD, Kazmierowski JA, Roberts WC, Frank MM, Crystal RG. Analysis of cellular and protein content of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis. J Clin Invest 1977; 59: 165–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Daniele RP, Elias JA, Epstein PE, Rossman MD. Bronchoalveolar lavage: role in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of interstitial lung disease. Ann Intern Med 1985; 102: 93–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Richerson HB. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: pathology and pathogenesis. Clin Rev Allergy 1983; 1: 469–486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Richerson HB. Immune complexes and the lung: a skeptical review. Sury Synth Path Res 1984; 3: 281–291.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fournier E, Tonnel AB, Gosset Ph, Wallaer B, Ameisen JC, Voisin C. Early neutrophil alveolitis after antigen inhalation in hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Chest 1985; 88: 563–566.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    McSharry C, Banham SW, Boyd G. Effect of cigarette smoking on the antibody response to inhaled antigens and the prevalence of extrinsic allergic alveolitis among pigeon breeders. Clin Allergy 1985; 15: 487–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Caldwell JR, Pearce CE, Spencer C, Leder T, Waldman RH. Immunologic mechanisms in hypersensitivity pneumonitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1973; 52: 225–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Costabel U, Bross KJ, Marxen J, Matthys H. T lymphocytosis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of hypersensitivity pneumonitis: changes in profile of T-cell subsets during course of disease. Chest 1984; 85: 514–518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Cormier Y, Belanger J, Beaudoin J, Laviolette M, Beaudoin R, Hebert J. Abnormal bronchoalveolar lavage in asymptomatic dairy farmers. Study of lymphocytes. Am Rev Respir Dis 1984; 130: 1046–1049.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Cormier Y, Belanger J, Laviolette M. Persistent bronchoalveolar lymphocytosis in asymptomatic farmers. Am Rev Respir Dis 1986; 133: 843–847.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Keller RH, Swartz S, Schlueter DP, Bar-Sela S, Fink JN. Immunoregulation in hypersensitivity pneumonitis: phenotypic and functional studies of bronchoalveolar lavage lymphocytes. Am Rev Respir Dis 1984; 130: 766–771.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Allen DH, Basten A, Woolcock AJ. HLA and bird breeder’s hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Monogr Allergy 1977; 11: 45–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Flaherty DK, Iha T, Chmelik F, et al. HLA-8 and farmer’s lung disease. Lancet 1975; 2: 507.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rittner C, Sennekamp J, Vogel F. HLA-B8 in pigeon fancier’s lung. Lancet 1975; 2: 1303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rodey GF, Fink J, Koethe S, et al. A study of HLA-A, B, C and DR specificities in pigeon breeder’s disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 1979; 119: 755–759.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Benacerraf B, Katz DH. The nature and function of histocompatibility-linked immune response genes. In: Benacerraf B, ed. Immunogenetics and immunodeficiency. Baltimore: University Park Press, 1975: 117–178.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Allen EM, Moore VL, Stevens JO. Strain variation in BCG-induced chronic pulmonary inflammation in mice. I. Basic model and possible genetic control by non H-2 genes. J Immunol 1977; 119: 343–347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Salvaggio JE, Phanuphak P, Stanford R, Bice D, Claman H. Experimental production of granulomatous pneumonitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1975; 56: 364–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Harris JD, Bice D, Salvaggio J. Cellular and humoral bronchopulmonary immune responses of rabbits immunized with thermophilic actinomycete antigen. Am Rev Respir Dis 1976; 114: 29–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Berrens L, Guikers CLH, vanDijk A. The antigens in pigeon breeders disease and their interaction with human complement. Ann NY Acad Sci 1974; 221: 153162.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Rylander R, Haglind P, Lundholm M, Mattsby I, Stenquist I. Humidifier fever and endotoxin exposure. Clin Allergy 1978; 8: 511–516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Edwards JH, Barboriak JJ, Fink JN. Antigens in pigeon breeders disease. Immunology 1970; 19: 729–734.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Dickie HA, Rankin J. Farmer’s lung: an acute granulo-matous interstitial pneumonitis occurring in agricultural workers. JAMA 1958; 167: 1069–1076.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Totten RS, Reid DHS, Davies HO, Moran TJ. Farmer’s lung. Am J Med 1958; 25: 803–809.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Frank RC. Farmer’s lung: a form of pneumoconiosis due to organic dusts. AJR 1958; 79: 189–215.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Seal RMF, Thomas GO, Griffiths JJ. Farmer’s lung. Proc R Soc Med 1963; 56: 271–273.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Seal RMF, Hapke EJ, Thomas GO. Pathology of the acute and chronic stages of farmer’s lung. Thorax 1968; 23: 469–489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hammar S, Bockus D, Remington F, Friedman S. The widespread distribution of Langerhans’ cells in pathologic tissues: an ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study. Hum Pathol 1986; 17: 894–905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Liebow AA, Carrington CB. Diffuse pulmonary lymphoreticular infiltration associated with dysproteinemia. Med Clin North Am 1973; 57: 809–843.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Perreault C, Cousineau S, D’Angelo G, et al. Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: a possible manifestation of chronic graft-versus-host disease. Cancer 1985; 55: 1–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Strimlan CV, Rosenow EC III, Divertie MB, Harrison EGJr.Pulmonary manifestations of Sjögren’s syndrome. Chest 1976; 70: 354–361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Grieco MH, Chinoy-Acharya P. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis 1985; 131: 952–955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Solal-Celingny T, Couderc LJ, Herman D, et al. Lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related complex. Am Rev Respir Dis 1985; 131: 956–960.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Morell F, Orriols R, Molina C. Usefulness of skin test in farmer’s lung. Chest 1985; 87: 202–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Costabel V, Bross KJ, Marxen MA, Matthys H. T-lymphocytosis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of hypersensitivity pneumonitis: changes in profile of T-cell subsets during the course of disease. Chest 1984; 85: 514–518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Anttinen H, Terho EO, Myllyla R, Savolainen E. Two serum markers of collagen biosynthesis as possible indicators of irreversible pulmonary impairment in farmer’s lung. Am Rev Respir Dis 1986; 133: 88–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Braun SR, doPico GA, Tsiatis A, Horvath E, Dickie HA, Rankin J. Farmer’s lung disease: long-term clinical and physiologic outcome. Am Rev Respir Dis 1979; 119: 185–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Langerhans P. Uber die Nerven der menschlichen Haut. Virch Arch [Pathol Anat] 1868; 44: 325–337.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Birbeck MS, Breathnach AD, Everall JD. An electron microscope study of basal melanocytes and high-level clear cells (Langerhans cells) in vitiligo. J Invest Dermatol 1961; 37: 51–64.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Basset F, Turiaf J. Identification par la microscopie electronique de particles de nature probablement virale dans les lesions granulomateuses d’une histiocytose X pulmonaire. CR Seances Acad Sci (Paris) 1965; 261: 37013703.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Katz SI, Tamaki K, Sachs DH. Epidermal Langerhans 415 cells are derived from cells originating in bone marrow. Nature 1979; 282: 324–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Wood GS, Morhenn VB, Butcher EC, Kosek J. Langerhans cells react with panleukocyte monoclonal antibody. Ultrastructural documentation using a live cell suspension immunoperoxidase technique. J Invest Dermatol 1984; 82: 322–325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Stingl G, Wolff-Schreiner EC, Pichler WJ, Gschnait F, Knapp W. Epidermal Langerhans cells bear Fc and C3 receptors. Nature 1977; 268: 245–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Rowden G, Lewis MC, Sullivan AK. Ia antigen expression on human Langerhans cells. Nature 1977; 268: 247248.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Murphy GF, Bhan AK, Sato S, Harrist JJ, Mihm MC. Characterization of Langerhans cells by the use of monoclonal antibodies. Lab Invest 1981; 45: 465–468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Favara BE, McCarthy RC, Mierau GW. Histiocytosis X. Hum Pathol 1983; 14: 663–676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Beckstead JH, Wood GS, Turner RR. Histiocytosis X cells and Langerhans cells: enzyme histochemical and immunologic similarities. Hum Pathol 1984; 15: 826833.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Takahashi K, Isobe T, Ohtsuki Y, Sonobe H, Takeda I, Akagi T. Immunohistochemical localization and distribution of S-100 protein in human lymphoreticular system. Am J Pathol 1984; 116: 497–503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Wood GS, Turner RR, Shiurba RA, Eng L. Warnke RA. Human dendritic cells and macrophages: in situ immunophenotypic definition of subsets that exhibit specific morphologic and microenvironmental characteristics. Am J Pathol 1985; 119: 73–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Franklin WA, Mason DY, Pulford K, et al. Immunohistologic analysis of human mononuclear phagocytes and dendritic cells by using monoclonal antibodies. Lab Invest 1986; 54: 322–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Murphy GF, Messadi D, Fonferko I, Hancock WW. Phenotypic transformation of macrophages to Langerhans cells in the skin. Am J Pathol 1986; 123: 401–406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Farber S. The nature of “solitary or eosinophilic granuloma” of bone. Am J Pathol 1941; 17: 625.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Lichtenstein L. Histiocytosis X. Integration of eosinophilic granuloma of bone, “Letterer-Siwe disease” and “Schuller-Christian disease” as related manifestations of a single nosologic entity. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1953; 56: 84–102.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Lieberman P, Jones C, Dargeon H, Begg CF. A reappraisal of eosinophilic granuloma of bone, Hand-Schuller-Christian syndrome and Letterer-Siwe syndrome. Medicine (Baltimore) 1969; 48: 375–400.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Vogel JM, Vogel P. Idiopathic histiocytosis: a discussion of eosinophilic granuloma, the Hand-Schuller-Christian syndrome and the Letterer-Siwe syndrome. Semin Hematol 1972; 9: 349–369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Lewis JG. Eosinophilic granuloma and its variants with special reference to lung involvement. A report of 12 patients. Q J Med 1964; 33: 337–359.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Parkinson T. Eosinophilic xanthomatous granuloma with honeycomb lungs. Br Med J 1949; 1: 1029–1030.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Oswald N, Parkinson T. Honeycomb lungs. Q J Med 1949; 18: 1–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Cunningham GJ, Parkinson T. Diffuse cystic lungs of granulomatous origin. A histological study of six cases. Thorax 1950; 5: 43–58.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Farinacci CJ, Jeffrey HC, Lackey RW. Eosinophilic granuloma of the lung. Report of two cases. US Armed Forces Med J 1951; 2: 1085–1093.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Mazitello WF. Eosinophilic granuloma of the lung. N Engl J Med 1954; 250: 804–809.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Basset F, Corrin B, Spencer H, et al. Pulmonary histiocytosis X. Am Rev Respir Dis 1978; 118: 811–820.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Friedman PJ, Liebow AA, Sokoloff J. Eosinophilic granuloma of lung: clinical aspects of primary pulmonary histiocytosis in the adult. Medicine (Baltimore) 1981; 60: 385–396.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Hammar SP, Hallman KO, Winterbauer RH, et al. Primary pulmonary histiocytosis X: A clinicopathologic analysis of 31 patients. Am J Surg Pathol (in press).Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Colby TV, Lombard C. Histiocytosis X in the lung_. Hum Pathol 1983; 14: 847–856.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Villar TG, Avila R, Marques RA. Eosinophilic granuloma of the lung and the extrinsic pulmonary granulomatoses. Ann NY Acad Sci 1976; 278: 612–617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Girard P, Bouzakoura C. Eosinophilic granuloma of the lung with sawdust and horse serum hypersensitivity. Clin Allergy 1974; 4: 71–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Auld D. Pathology of eosinophilic granuloma of lung. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1957; 63: 113–131.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Thompson JR, Langer S. Eosinophilic granuloma of the lungs. Dis Chest 1964; 46: 553–561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    King TE, Schwarz MI, Dreisin RE, Pratt DS, Theofilopoulos AN. Circulating immune complexes in pulmonary eosinophilic granuloma. Ann Intern Med 1979; 91: 397–399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Dreisen RB, Schwarz MI, Theofilopoulous AN, Stanford RE. Circulating immune complexes in the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. N Engl J Med 1978; 298: 353357.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Haslam PL. Circulating immune complexes in patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. Clin Exp Immunol 1979; 37: 381–390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Ahnquist G, Holyoke JB. Congenital Letterer-Siwe disease (reticuloendotheliosis) in a term stillborn infant. J Pediatr 1960; 57: 897–904.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Claman HN, Suvatte V, Githens JH, Hathaway WE. Histiocytic reaction in dysgammaglobulinemia and congenital rubella. Pediatrics 1970; 46: 89–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    van der Loo FM, van Muijen GNP, van Vloten WA, Beens W, Scheffer F, Meijer GJLM. C-type virus-like particles specifically localized in Langerhans cells and related cells of skin and lymph nodes of patients with mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome. Virchows Arch [Cell Pathol] 1979; 31: 193–203.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Osband ME, Lipton JM, Lavin P, et al. Histiocytosis X: demonstration of abnormal immunity, T-cell histamine H2-receptor deficiency and successful treatment with thymic extract. N Engl J Med 1981; 304: 146–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Knudson RJ, Badger TL, Gaensler EA. Eosinophilic granuloma of lung. Med Thorac 1966; 23: 248–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Guardia J, Pedreira J, Esteban R, Vargas V, Allende E. Early pleural effusion in histiocytosis X. Arch Intern Med 1979; 139: 934–936.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Masson RG, Tedeschi LG. Pulmonary eosinophilic granuloma with hilar adenopathy simulating sarcoidosis. Chest 1978; 73: 682–683.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Pomeranz SJ, Proto AV. Histiocytosis X. Unusual-confusing features of eosinophilic granuloma. Chest 1986;89:88–92.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Sajjad SM, Luna MA. Primary pulmonary histiocytosis X in two patients with Hodgkin’s disease. Thorax 1982; 37: 110–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Wyre HW, Henrichs WD. Systemic mastocytosis and pulmonary eosinophilic granuloma. JAMA 1978; 239: 856–857.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    LaCronique J, Roth C, Battesti JP, Basset F, Chretien J. Chest radiological features of pulmonary histiocytosis X. A report based on 50 adult cases. Thorax 1982; 37: 104–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Bedrossian CWM, Kuhn C III, Luna MA, Conklin RH, Byrd RB, Kaplan PD. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia-like reaction accompanying pulmonary lesions. Chest 1977; 72: 166–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Askin FB, McCann BG, Kuhn C III. Reactive eosinophilic pleuritis. A lesion to be distinguished from pulmonary eosinophilic granuloma. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1977; 101: 187–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Hammar SP, Winterbauer RH, Bockus D, Remington F, Friedman S. Idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis: a review with emphasis on ultrastructural and immunohistochemical features. Ultrastruct Pathol 1985; 9: 345–372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Hammar SP, Bolen JW, Bockus D, Remington F, Friedman S. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical features of common lung tumors. An overview. Ultrastruct Pathol 1985; 9: 283–318.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Hammar SP, Bockus D, Remington F, et al. Langerhans cells and serum precipitating antibodies against fungal antigen in bronchiolo-alveolar cell carcinomas: possible association with eosinophilic granuloma. Ultrastruct Pathol 1980; 1: 19–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Wall CP, Gaensler EA, Carrington CB, Hayes JA. Comparison of transbronchial and open biopsies in chronic infiltrative lung disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 1981; 123: 280–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Webber D, Tron V, Askin F, Churg A. S-100 staining in the diagnosis of eosinophilic granuloma of lung. Am J Clin Pathol 1985; 84: 447–453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Soler P, Chollet S, Jacque C, Fukuda Y, Ferrans VJ, Basset F. Immunocytochemical characterization of pulmonary histiocytosis X cells in lung biopsies. Am J Pathol 1985; 118: 439–451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Chollet S, Soler P, Dournovo P, Richard MS, Ferrans VJ, Basset F. Diagnosis of pulmonary histiocytosis X by immunodetection of Langerhans cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Am J Pathol 1984; 115: 225–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Hammar SP, Winterbauer RH, Bockus D. Diagnosis of eosinophilic granuloma by ultrastructural examination of sputum. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1978; 102: 606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Powers MA, Askin FB, Cresson DH. Pulmonary eosinophilic granuloma. A 25-year follow-up. Am Rev Respir Dis 1984; 129: 503–507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Huhn D, Konig G, Weig J, Schneller W. Therapy in pulmonary histiocytosis X. Haematol Bluttransfus 1981; 27: 231–237.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samuel P. Hammar

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations