Artificial renal replacement therapy for the treatment of acute renal failure was first introduced during the Korean War. Over the past two decades, technologic improvements have resulted in several treatment options that include peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, and continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT). Moreover, technologic improvements in vascular catheters, semipermeable membranes, and dialytic machinery have resulted in a variety of dialysis prescription options. The clinical indications for choosing these different modalities have not been precisely defined. The choice of therapy often depends on several conditions that include availability of vascular access, types of dialysis machinery, and availability of skilled personnel. This chapter reviews the different types of renal replacement therapy and the indications and complications confronting the clinician in the ICU setting.
KeywordsPeritoneal Dialysis Acute Renal Failure Renal Replacement Therapy Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy Vascular Access
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