The mainstay of treatment for patients with inadequate hemodynamic performance is maintaining appropriate intravascular volume (preload), vascular tone (afterload), and myocardial pump function (contractility), most commonly accomplished by volume administration or diuretic therapy, pharmacologic manipulation of the vascular tone with vasodilators or vasopressors, and inotropic agents. When these measures result in an inadequate response in hemodynamic performance, mechanical circulatory support may be indicated. This chapter discusses the major mechanical circulatory support techniques currently available for use in critically ill patients, including intraaortic balloon counterpulsation (IABC) therapy, ventricular-assist devices (VADs), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).
KeywordsCardiogenic Shock Balloon Catheter Limb Ischemia Mechanical Circulatory Support Intraaortic Balloon
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