Metabolic Disturbances of Acid—Base and Electrolytes

  • Noah Brad Schreibman
  • Gerald M. O’Brien


A wide range of acid—base and electrolyte disorders are encountered daily by the clinician caring for critically ill patients. The goal of this chapter is to supply the reader with a systematic strategy that can be used when confronted with abnormal serum chemistry and blood gases so that one can successfully arrive at a precise assessment, diagnosis, and therapeutic plan. Several case studies illustrate and help guide this discussion. This chapter does not dwell on the basic pathophysiology of each disorder, but we encourage the reader to refer to the Suggested Reading list at the end of the chapter to learn more about specific areas.


Tumor Lysis Syndrome Renal Tubular Acidosis Metabolic Alkalosis Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Serum Bicarbonate 
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Suggested Reading

  1. Blum D, Brasseur D, Kahn A, Brachet E. Safe oral rehydration of hypertonic dehydration. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1986; 5: 232–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Greenspan FS (ed). Basic and Clinical Endocrinology, 3rd Ed. East Norwalk, CT: Appleton Lange, 1991.Google Scholar
  3. Rose BD. Clinical Physiology of Acid—Base and Electrolyte Disorders, 4th Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994.Google Scholar
  4. Shapiro BA, Harrison RH, Walton JR. Clinical Application of Blood Gases, 3rd Ed. Chicago: Year Book, 1982.Google Scholar
  5. Surawicz B. Relationship between electrocardiogram and electrolytes. Am Heart J 1967; 73: 814–834.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Zef ren JL, et al. Reversible defect in renal concentrating mechanism in patients with hypercalcemia. Am J Med 1962; 33: 543.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Noah Brad Schreibman
  • Gerald M. O’Brien

There are no affiliations available

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