Circulatory Shock

  • Vadim Leyenson


Circulatory failure, or shock, is a state of inadequate perfusion relative to the tissue demands. It is always characterized by low blood pressure and dysfunction of key vital organs. The presentation of shock can vary depending on its nature and severity. It also depends on the vital organs involved. Virtually every aspect of shock, from its definition to treatment, remains controversial. In this chapter we attempt to cover the most established principles of the pathophysiology and therapy of circulatory failure. We also define circulatory failure, review the major pathophysiologic mechanisms, and provide major algorithms of treatment.


Septic Shock Cardiogenic Shock Disseminate Intravascular Coagulation Venous Return Intravascular Volume 
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Suggested Reading

  1. Bartlett RH. Critical Care Physiology. Boston: Little, Brown, 1996.Google Scholar
  2. Hall JB, Schmidt GA, Wood LDH. Principles of Critical Care, 2nd Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998.Google Scholar
  3. Lodato RE Cardiovascular derangement in septic shock and nitric oxide. J Crit Care 1996; 11: 151–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vadim Leyenson

There are no affiliations available

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