• Norio Azumi
  • Bernard Czernobilsky


In recent years, immunohistochemistry has largely replaced “special stains” and electron microscopy as an adjunctive method to assist in the differential diagnosis of tumors and in the identification of infectious agents. This technique permits visualization of immunologically detectable markers (antigens) in tissue sections; thus, the pathologist can observe both the morphology and immunophenotype of a given tissue or neoplasm. To exploit this technique fully, the pathologist must be acquainted not only with the distribution of various antigens in different tumors and tissue, but also must have sufficient knowledge of the methodology to avoid pitfalls in interpretation. Accordingly, this chapter is divided into a section describing various aspects of the methodology of this technique and a section describing the application of immunohistochemistry in the identification of a variety of antigens, including intermediate filaments, hormone receptors, oncofetal antigens, and gene products, which can be useful in the differential diagnosis and prognosis of tumors of the female genital tract. This latter section is organized by antigens and is intended to complement the individual (organ) chapters. Table 26.1 can assist the reader in selecting which antibodies are useful in the differential diagnosis of various lesions. Appropriate page numbers also are included in the table.


Ovarian Carcinoma Endometrial Carcinoma Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Uterine Cervix Endometrial Adenocarcinoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Al-Timimi A, Buckley CH, Fox H (1985) An immunohistochemical study of the incidence and significance of sex steroid hormone binding sites in normal and neoplastic human ovarian tissue. Int J Gynecol Pathol 4: 24–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ambros RA, Park JS, Shah KV, Kurman RJ (1991) Evaluation of histologic, morphometric, and immunohistochemical criteria in the differential diagnosis of small cell carcinomas of the cervix with particular reference to human papillomavirus types 16 and 18. Mod Pathol 4: 586–593PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Auerbach HE, LiVolsi VA, Merino MJ (1988) Malignant mixed müllerian tumors of the uterus. An immunohistochemical study. Int J Gynecol Pathol 7: 123–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Auerbach R, Mittal K, Schwartz PE (1988) Estroge and progestin receptor in an ovarian ependymoma. Obstet Gynecol 71: 1043–1045PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Azumi N, Battifora H (1987) The distribution of vimentin and keratin in epithelial and nonepithelial neoplasms. A comprehensive immunohistochemical study on formalinand alcohol-fixed tumors. Am J Clin Pathol 88: 286–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Azumi N, Ben-Ezra J, Battifora H (1988) Immunophenotypic diagnosis of leiomyosarcomas and rhabdomyosarcomas with monoclonal antibodies to muscle-specific actin and desmin in formalin-fixed tissue. Mod Pathol 1: 469–474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Azumi N, Joyce J, Battifora H (1990) Does rapid microwave fixation improve immunohistochemistry? Mod Pathol 3: 368–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Battifora H, Kopinski M (1986) The influence of protease digestion and duration of fixation on the immunostaining of keratins. A comparison of formalin and ethanol fixation. J Histochem Cytochem 34: 1095–1100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Battifora H, Mehta P (1990) The checkerboard tissue block. An improved multitissue control block. Lab Invest 63: 722–724PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Beham A, Denk H, Desoye G (1988) The distribution of intermediate filament protein, actin and desmoplakins in human placental tissue as revealed by polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Placenta 9: 479–492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Berchuck A, Rodriguez G, Kinney RB, et al (1991) Overexpression of HER-2/neu in endometrial cancer is associated with advanced stage disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol 164: 15–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Berchuck A, Soisson AP, Clarke-Pearson DL, et al (1993) Immunohistochemical expression of CA125 in endometrial adenocarcinoma: Correlation of antigen expression with metastatic potential. Cancer Res 49: 2091–2095Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bergeron C, Ferenczy A, Toft DO, Shyamala G (1988) Immunocytochemical study of progesterone receptors in hyperplastic and neoplastic endometrial tissues. Cancer Res 48: 6132–6136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bizzi A, Codegoni AM, Landoni F, et al (1988) Steroid receptors in epithelial ovarian carcinoma: Relation to clinical parameters and survival. Cancer Res 48: 6222–6226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Boerman OC, Makkink WK, Thomas CM, et al (1990) Monoclonal antibodies that discriminate between human ovarian carcinomas and benign ovarian tumours. Eur J Cancer 26: 117–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bonazzi del Poggetto C, Virtanen I, Lehto VP, Walhstrøm T, Saksela E (1983) Expression of intermediate filaments in ovarial and uterine tumors. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1: 359–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Borazjani G, Twiggs LB, Leung BS, Prem KA, Adcock LL, Carson LF (1989) Prognostic significance of steroid receptors measured in primary metastatic and recurrent endometrial carcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 161: 1253–1257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bradgate MG, Redman CW, Rollason TP, Williams A, Byrne P, Kelly K (1989) Binding of anti-EMA, AGF 4: 48 and the lectin UEA-1 to human ovarian carcinomas: Histological and clinical correlations. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 96: 854–860PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brescia RJ, Kurman RJ, Main CS, Surti U, Szulman AE (1987) Immunocytochemical localization of chorionic gonadotropin, placental lactogen, and placental alkaline phosphatase in the diagnosis of complete and partial hydatidiform moles. Int J Gynecol Pathol 6: 213–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Brisigotti M, Moreno A, Murcia C, Matias-Guiu X, Prat J (1989) Verrucous carcinoma of the vulva. A clinico-pathologic and immunohistochemical study of f. Int J Gynecol Pathol 8: 1–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Brown DC, Cole D, Garter KC, Mason DY (1988) Carcinoma of the cervix uteri: An assessment of tumour proliferation using the monoclonal antibody Ki67. Br J Cancer 57: 178–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Brown DC, Theaker JM, Banks PM, Gatter KC, Mason DY (1987) Cytokeratin expression in smooth muscle and smooth muscle tumours. Histopathology 11: 477–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Brown LJ, Griffin NR, Wells M (1987) Cytoplasmic reactivity with the monoclonal antibody HMFG1 as a marker of cervical glandular atypia. J Pathol 151: 203–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Brresen AL (1992) Oncogenesis in ovarian cancer. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 155(suppl): 25–30Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Brumm C, Rivière A, Wilckens C, Loning T (1990) Immunohistochemical investigation and northern blot analysis of c-erB-2 expression in normal, premalignant and malignant tissues of the corpus and cervix uteri. Virch Arch [A] 417: 477–484Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Budwit-Novotny DA, McCarty KS, Cox EB, et al (1986) Immunohistochemical analyses of estrogen receptor in endometrial adenocarcinoma using a monoclonal antibody. Cancer Res 46: 5419–5425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bulmer JN, Johnson PM, Sasagawa M, Takeuchi S (1988) Immunohistochemical studies of fetal trophoblast and maternal decidua in hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma. Placenta 9: 183–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bur ME, Greene GL, Press MF (1987) Estrogen receptor localization in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded endometrium and endometriotic tissues. Int J Gynecol Pathol 6: 140–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bur ME, Perlman C, Edelmann L, Fey E, Rose PG (1992) p53 expression in neoplasms of the uterine corpus. Am J Clin Pathol 98: 81–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cajigas HE, Fariza E, Scully RE, Thor AD (1991) Enhancement of tumor-associated glycoprotein-72 antigen expression in hormone-related ovarian serous borderline tumors. Cancer 68: 348–354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Canney PA, Wilkinson PM, James RD, Moore M (1985) CA19-9 as a marker for ovarian cancer. Alone and in comparison with CA125. Br J Cancer 52: 131–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Carbone A, Poletti A, Manconi R, Sulfaro S, Volpe R (1987) S-100 protein immunostaining in teratomatous well-differentiated tissues. Histopathology 11: 980–983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Carcangiu ML, Chambers JT, Voynick IM, Pirro M, Schwartz PE (1990) Immunohistochemical evaluation of estrogen and progesterone receptor content in 183 patients with endometrial carcinoma. Part I: Clinical and histologic correlations. Am J Clin Pathol 94: 247–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Carr KA, Roberts JA, Frank TS (1992) Progesterone receptors in bilateral ovarian ependymoma presenting in pregnancy. Hum Pathol 23: 962–965PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chambers JT, Carcangiu ML, Voynick IM, Schwartz PE (1990) Immunohistochemical evaluation of estrogen and progesterone receptor content in 183 patients with endometrial carcinoma. Part II: Correlation between biochemical and immunohistochemical methods and survival. Am J Clin Pathol 94: 255–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Charpin C, Martin PM, Lavaut MN, Pourreau-Schneider N, Toga M (1986) Estrogen receptor immunocytochemical assay (ER-ICA) in human endometrium. Int J Gynecol Pathol 5: 119–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cintorino M, Bellizzi de Marco E, Leoncini P, et al (1991) Expression of alpha-smooth-muscle actin in stromal cells of the uterine cervix during epithelial neoplastic changes. Int J Cancer 47: 843–846PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Clark RK, Damjanov I (1985) Intermediate filaments of human trophoblast and choriocarcinoma cells. Virch Arch [A] 407: 203–208Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Creasman WT (1993) Prognostic significance of hormone receptors in endometrial cancer. Cancer 71: 1467–1470PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Czernobilsky B, Lifschitz-Mercer B, Luzon A, et al (1986) Cytokeratin patterns in the epidermis of human ovarian mature cystic teratomas. Am J Surg Pathol 10: 568–576Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Czernobilsky B, Moll R, Franke WW, Dallenbach-Hellweg G, Hohlweg-Majert P (1984) Intermediate filaments of and normal neoplastic tissues of the female genital tract with emphasis on problems of differential tumor diagnosis. Pathol Res Pract 179: 31–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Czernobilsky B, Moll R, Leppien G, Schweikhart G, Franke WW (1987) Desmosomal plaque-associated vimentin filaments in human ovarian granulosa cell tumors of various histologic patterns. Am J Pathol 126: 476–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Czernobilsky B, Moll R, Levy R, Franke WW (1985) Coexpression of cytokeratin and vimentin filaments in mesothelial, granulosa and rete ovari cells of the human ovary. Eur J Cell Biol 37: 175–190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Czernobilsky B, Shezen E, Lifschitz-Mercer B, et al (1989) Alpha smooth muscle actin (alpha-SM actin) in normal human ovaries, in ovarian stromal hyperplasia and in ovarian neoplasms. Virch Arch B Cell Pathol 57: 55–61Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Dabbs DJ, Geisinger KR, Norris HT (1986) Intermediate filaments in endometrial and endocervical carcinomas. The diagnostic utility of vimentin patterns. Am J Surg Pathol 10: 568–576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Dallenbach-Hellweg G, Lang G (1991) Immunohistochemical studies on uterine tumors. I. Invasive squamous cell carcinomas of the cervix and their precursors. Pathol Res Pract 187: 36–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Darne J, Soutter WP, Ginsberg R, Sharp F (1990) Nuclear and cytoplasmic estrogen and progesterone receptors in squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Gynecol Oncol 38: 216–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Davies JO, Davies ER, Howe K, et al (1985) Practical application of monoclonal antibody (NDOG2) against placental alkaline phosphatase in ovarian cancer. J Roy Soc Med 78: 899–905PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Debus E, Weber K, Osborn M (1983) Monoclonal antibodies to desmin, the muscle-specific intermediate filament protein. EMBO J 2: 2305–2312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Deligdisch L, Holinka CF (1986) Progesterone receptors in two group of endometrial carcinoma. Cancer 57: 1385–1388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Eccles DM, Brett L, Lessells A, et al (1992) Overexpression of the p53 protein and allele loss at 17p 13 in ovarian carcinoma. Br J Cancer 65: 40–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ehrmann RL, Dwyer IM, Yavner D, Hancock WW (1988) An immunoperoxidase study of laminin and type IV collagen distribution in carcinoma of the cervix and vulva. Obstet Gynecol 72: 257–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ersev A, Ersev D, Simsek F, Taga Y, Küllü S, Akdas A (1990) Ectopic production of human chorionic gonadotropin in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. An immu-nohistochemical study. Eur Urol 18: 227–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Esquius J, Brisigotti M, Matias-Guiu X, Prat J (1991) Keratin expression in normal vulva, non-neoplastic epithelial disorders, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, and invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol 10: 341–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Farhood AL, Abrams J (1991) Immunohistochemistry of endometrial stromal sarcoma. Hum Pathol 22: 224–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Fleuren GJ, Coerkamp EG, Nap M, v.d. Broek LJ, Warnaar SO (1987) Immunohistological characterization of a monoclonalantibody (OV632) against epithelial ovarian carcinomas. Virch Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol 410: 481–486Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Fleuren GJ, Nap M (1988) Carcinoembryonic antigen in primary and metastatic ovarian tumors. Gynecol Oncol 30: 407–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Fogel M, Lifschitz-Mercer B, Moll R, et al (1990) Heterogeneity of intermediate filament expression in human testicular seminomas. Differentiation 45: 242–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Franke WW, Moll R, Achtstätter T, Kuhn C (1986) Cell typing of epithelia and carcinomas of the female genital tract using cytoskeletal proteins as markers. In: Banbury Report 21: Viral Etiology of Cervical Cancer. New York, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, pp 121–148Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Franquemont DW, Frierson HF Jr, Mills SE (1991) An immunohistochemical study of normal endometrial stroma and endometrial stromal neoplasms. Evidence for smooth muscle differentiation. Am J Surg Pathol 15: 861–870PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Garcia E, Bouchard P, De Brux J, et al (1988) Use of immunocytochemistry of progesterone and estrogen receptors for endometrial dating. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 67: 80–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Geisinger KR, Marshall RB, Kute TE, Homesley HD (1986) Correlation of female sex steroid hormone receptors with histologic and ultrastructural differentiation in adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. Cancer 58: 1506–1517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ghazizadeh M, Oguro T, Sasaki Y, Aihara K, Araki T, Springer GF (1990) Immunohistochemical and ultratructural localization of T antigen in ovarian tumors. Am J Clin Pathol 93: 315–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Giancotti FR, Dorsett BH, Kim KT, Ioachim HL, Barber HR (1990) Immunohistochemical characterization of a monoclonal antibody detecting an endometrioid ovarian cancer-associated antigen. Int J Gynecol Pathol 9: 253–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Gigi-Leitner O, Geiger B, Levy R, Czernobilsky B (1986) Cytokeratin expression in squamous metasplasia of the human uterine cervix. Differentiation 31: 191–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Gilks CB, Taylor GP, Clement PB (1987) Inflammatory pseudotumor of the uterus. Int J Gynecol Pathol 6: 275–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Girling A, Bartkova J, Burchell J, Gendler S, Gillett C, Taylor-Papadimitriou J (1989) A core protein epitope of the polymorphic epithelial mucin detected by the monoclonal antibody SM-3 is selectively exposed in a range of primary carcinomas. Int J Cancer 43: 1072–1076PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Glasgow BJ, Wen DR, Al-Jitawi S, Cochran AJ (1987) Antibody to S-100 protein aids the separation of pagetoid melanoma from mammary and extramammary Paget’s disease. J Cutan Pathol 14: 223–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Gown AM, Vogel AM (1985) Monoclonal antibodies to human intermediate filament proteins III. Analysis of tumors. Am J Clin Pathol 84: 413–424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hachisuga T, Fukuda K, Hayashi Y, Iwasaka T, Sugimori H (1989) Immunohistochemical demonstration of histiocytes in normal ectocervical epithelium and epithelial lesions of the uterine cervix. Gynecol Oncol 33: 273–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Haldane JS, Hird V, Huges CM, Gullick WJ (1990) c-erbB-2 oncogene expression in ovarian cancer. J Pathol 162: 231–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hamilton-Dutoit SJ, Lou H, Pallesen G (1990) The expression of placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) and PLAP-like enzymes in normal and neoplastic human tissues. An immunohistological survey using monoclonal antibodies. APMIS 98: 797–811PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Hammond RH, Bates D, Clarke DG, et al (1991) The immunoperoxidase localization of tumour markers in ovarian cancer: The value of CEA, EMA, cytokeratin and DD9. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 98: 73–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Harding M, Cowan S, Hole D, et al (1990) Estrogen and progesterone receptors in ovarian cancer. Cancer 65: 486–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Harms D, Janig U (1986) Germ cell tumours of childhood. Report of 170 cases including 59 pure and partial yolk-sac tumours. Virch Arch [A] 409: 223–239Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Henry RJ, Goodman JD, Godley M, Raju KS, Coffer AI, King RJ (1988) Immunohistochemical study of cytoplasmic oestradiol receptor in normal, dysplastic and malignant cervical tissue. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 95: 927–932PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Heyderman E, Steele K, Ormerod MG (1979) A new antigen on epithelial membrane: Its immunoperoxidase location in normal and neoplastic tissue. J Clin Pathol 32: 35–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Himes TR, Ernst CS, Koprowska I (1986) Loss of blood isoantigens in exfoliated cells during the progression of CIN demonstrated by monoclonal antibody staining. Acta Cytol 30: 461–469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hung MC, Zhang X, Yan DH, et al (1992) Aberrant expression of the c-erbB-2/neu protooncogene in ovarian cancer. Cancer Lett 61: 95–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Iemura K, Sonoda T, Hayakawa A, et al (1991) Small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix showing Cushing’s syndrome caused by ectopic adrenocorticotropin hormone production. Jpn J Clin Oncol 21: 293–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ingram SS, Rosenman J, Heath R, Morgan TM, Moore D, Varia M (1989) The predictive value of progesterone receptor levels in endometrial cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 17: 21–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Inoue M, DeLellis RA, Scully RE (1986) Immunohistochemical demonstration of chromogranin in endometrial carcinomas with argyrophil cells. Hum Pathol 17: 841–847PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ishikura H, Scully RE (1987) Hepatoid carcinoma of the ovary. A newly described tumor. Cancer 60: 2775–2784PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Isola J, Kallioniemi OP, Korte JM, et al (1990) Steroid receptors and Ki-67 reactivity in ovarian cancer and in normal ovary: Correlation with DNA flow cytometry, biochemical receptor assay, and patient survival. J Pathol 162: 295–301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ivanyi D, Ansink A, Groeneveld E, Hageman PC, Mooi WJ, Heintz AP (1989) New monoclonal antibodies recognizing epidermal differentiation-associated keratins in formalinfixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Keratin 10 expression in carcinoma of the vulva. J Pathol 159: 7–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ivanyi D, Groeneveld E, Van Doornewaard G, Mooi WJ, Hageman PC (1990) Keratin subtypes in carcinomas of the uterine cervix: Implications for histogenesis and differential diagnosis. Cancer Res 50: 5143–5152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Iversen OE, Skaarland E, Utaaker E (1986) Steroid receptor content in human ovarian tumors: survival of patients with ovarian carcinoma related to steroid receptor content. Gynecol Oncol 23: 65–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Iwamori M, Sakayori M, Nozawa S, et al (1989) Monoclonal antibody-defined antigen of human uterine endometrial carcinomas is Leb. J Biochem (Tokyo) 105: 718–722Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kerner H, Gal D, Friedman M, Moll R (1988) An immunohistochemical and biochemical study of cytokeratin polypeptides in a non-Paget type adenocarcinoma of the vulva. J Obstet Gynecol 8: 294–298Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Kerns BJ, Jordan PA, Moore MB, et al (1992) p53 overexpression in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue detected by immunohistochemistry. J Histochem Cytochem 40: 1047–1051PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Khalifa MA, Sesterhenn IA (1990) Tumor markers of epithelial ovarian neoplasms. Int J Gynecol Pathol 9: 217–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Khong TY, Lane EB, Robertson WB (1986) An immunocytochemical study of fetal cells at the maternal-placental interface using monoclonal antibodies to keratins, vimentin and desmin. Cell Tissue Res 246: 189–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Kiguchi K, Takamatsu K, Tanaka J, Nozawa S, Iwamori M, Nagai Y (1992) Glycosphingolipids of various human ovanan tumors: A significantly high expression of I3SO3GalCer and Lewis antigen in mutinous cystadenocarcinoma. Cancer Res 52: 416–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kleine W, Maier T, Geyer H, Pfleiderer A (1990) Estrogen and progesterone receptors in endometrial cancer and their prognostic relevance. Gynecol Oncol 38: 59–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Knapp AC, Franke WW (1989) Spontaneous loss of control of cytokeratin gene expression in transformed, non-epithelial human cells occurring at different levels of regulation. Cell 59: 67–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kommoss F, Franklin WA, Talerman A (1989) Estrogen and progesterone receptors in endodermal sinus (yolk sac) tumor. Evaluation of immunocytochemical and biochemical methods. J Reprod Med 34: 943–945PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Konishi I, Fujii S, Kataoka N, et al (1988) Ovarian mutinous cystadenocarcinoma producing alpha-fetoprotein. Int J Gynecol Pathol 7: 182–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Konishi I, Fujii S, Nonogaki H, Nanbu Y, Iwai T, Mori T (1991) Immunohistochemical analysis of estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, Ki-67 antigen, and human papillomavirus DNA in normal and neoplastic epithelium of the uterine cervix. Cancer 68: 1340–1350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Koprowski H, Steplewski Z, Mitchell K, et al (1979) Colorectal carcinoma antigens detected by hybridoma antibodies. Somat Cell Genet 5: 957–972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kuhnel R, Rao BR, Stolk JG, van Kessel H, Seldenrijk CA, Willig AP (1987) Estrogen synthesizing rare malignant Brenner tumor of the ovary with the presence of progesterone and androgen receptors in the absence of estrogen receptors. Gynecol Oncol 26: 263–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kupryja’nczyk J, Moller P (1988) Estrogen receptor distribution in the normal and pathologically changed human cervix uteri: An immunohistochemical study with use of monoclonal anti-ER antibody. Int J Gynecol Pathol 7: 75–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kurman RJ, Young RH, Norris HJ, Main CS, et al (1984) Immunohistochemical localization of placental lactogen and chorionic gonadotropin in the normal placenta and trophoblastic tumors, with emphasis on intermediate trophoblast and the placental site trophoblastic tumor. Int J Gynecol Pathol 3: 101–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kurrasch RH, Rutherford AV, Rick ME, et al (1989) Characterization of a monoclonal antibody, OVB1, which binds to a unique determinant in human ovarian carcinomas and myeloid cells. J Histochem Cytochem 37: 57–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kuruc N, Franke WW (1988) Transient coexpression of desmin and cytokeratins 8 and 18 in developing myocardial cells. Differentiation 38: 177–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Levy R, Czernobilsky B, Geiger B (1988) Subtyping of epithelial cells of normal and metaplastic human uterine cervix, using polypeptide-specific cytokeratin antibodies. Differentiation 39: 186–196Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Liao SY, Choi BH (1986) Expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein by neoplastic cells of müllerian origin. Virch Arch B Cell Pathol 52: 185–193Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Iifschitz-Mercer B, Czernobilsky B, Dgani R, Dallenbach-Hellweg G, Moll R, Franke WW (1987) Immunocytochemical study of an endometrial diffuse clear cell stromal sarcoma an dother endometrial stromal sarcomas. Cancer 59: 1494–1499Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Iifschitz-Mercer B, Czernobilsky B, Shezen E, Dgani P, Leitner O, Geiger B (1988) Selective expression of cytokeratin polypeptides in various epithelia of human Brenner tumor. Hum Pathol 19: 640–650Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Iifschitz-Mercer B, Fogel M, Kushnir I, Czernobilsky B (1989) Chorangioma. A cytoskeletal profile. Int J Gynecol Pathol 8: 349–356Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Iifschitz-Mercer B, Fogel M, Moll R, et al (1991) Intermediate filament protein profiles of human testicular nonseminomatous germ cell tumors: Correlation of cytokeratin synthesis to cell differentiation. Differentiation 48: 191–198Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Lin M, Hanai J, Wada A, et al (1991) S-100 protein in ovarian tumors. A comparative immunohistochemical study of 135 cases. Acta Pathol Jpn 41: 233–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Lidngren J, Vesterinen E, Purola E, Wahlstrom T (1986) Prognostic significance of tissue carcinoembryonic antigen in mild dysplasia of the uterine cervix. Tumour Biol 6: 465–470Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Loy TS, Darkow VD (1993) Distribution of colon-ovarian tumor antigen in adenocarcinomas. An immunohistochemical study of 501 cases. Am J Clin Pathol 99: 207–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Luevano-Flores E, Sotelo J, Tena-Suck M (1985) Glial polyp (glioma) of the uterine cervix, report of a case with demonstration of glial fibrillary acidic protein. Gynecol Oncol 21: 385–390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Mainguene C, Aillet G, Kremer M, Chatal JF (1986) Immunohistochemical study of ovarian tumors using the OC 125 monoclonal antibody as a basis for potential in vivo and in vitro applications. J Nucl Med Allied Sci 30: 19–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Manivel C, Wick MR, Sibley RK (1986) Neuroendocrine differentiation in müllerian neoplasms. An immunohistochemical study of a “pure” endometrial small-cell carci-noma and a mixed müllerian tumor containing small-cell carcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol 86: 438–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Marks JR, Davidoff AM, Kerns BJ, et al (1991) Overexpression and mutation of p53 in epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Res 51: 2979–2984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Martin JD, Hahnel R, McCartney AJ, De Klerk N (1986) The influence of estrogen and progesterone receptors on survival in patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Gynecol Oncol 23: 329–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Masood S (1988) Use of monoclonal antibodies in immunocytochemical localization of estrogen receptors in ovarian cancer. Cancer Detect Prev 12: 283–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Masood S, Hosein I, Pitcher M, Graf W (1990) Potential value of immunoperoxidase technique in assessment of genital herpes. J Fla Med Assoc 77: 516–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Matsukuma K, Tsukamoto N (1988) Alpha-fetoprotein producing endometrial adenocarcinoma: Report of a case. Gynecol Oncol 29: 370–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    McDicken IW, Rainey M (1983) The immunohistological demonstration of carcinoembryonic antigen in intra-epithelial and invasive squamous carcinoma of the cervix. Histopathology 7: 475–485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    McLaughlin PJ, Warne PH, Hutchinson GE, Johnson PM, Tucker DF (1987) Placental-type alkaline phosphatase in cervical neoplasia. Br J Cancer 55: 197–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    McNutt M, Bolen JW, Gown AM, Hammar SP, Vogel AM (1985) Coexpression of intermediate filaments in human epithelial neoplasms. Ultrastruct Pathol 9: 31–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Metoki R, Kakudo K, Tsuji Y, Teng N, Clausen H, Hakomori S (1989) Deletion of histo-blood group A and B antigens and expression of incompatible A antigen in ovarian cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 81: 1151–1157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Mettler L, Radzun HJ, Salmassi A, Kochling W, Parwaresch MR (1990) Six new monoclonal antibodies to serous, mucinous, and poorly differentiated ovarian adenocarcinomas. Cancer 65: 1525–1532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Miettinen A, Franssila K (1989) Immunohistochemical spectrum of malignant melanoma. The common presence of keratins. Lab Invest 6: 623–628Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Miettinen M, Lehto VP, Bradley R, Virtanen I (1982) Expression of intermediate filaments in soft tissue sarcomas. Int J Cancer 30: 545–546Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Miettinen M, Lehto VP, Virtanen I (1983) Expression of intermediate filaments in normal ovaries and ovarian epithelial, sex-cord-stromal, and germinal tumours. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2: 64–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Miettinen M, Wahlstrom T, Virtanen I, Talerman A, Astengo-Osuna C (1985) Cellular differentiation in ovarian sex-cord stromal and germ cell tumors studied with antibodies to intermediate filament proteins. Am J Surg Pathol 9: 640–651PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Moll I, Moll R (1985) Cells of extramammary Paget’s disease express cytokeratins different from those of epidermal cells. J Invest Dermatol 84: 3–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Moll R, Franke WW, Schiller DL, Geiger B, Krepier R (1982) The catalog of human cytokeratins: Patterns of expression in normal epithelia, tumors and cultured cells. Cell 31: 11–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Moll R, Franke WW, Volc-Platzer B, Krepier R (1982) Different keratin polypeptides in epidermis and other epithelia of human skin: A specific cytokeratin of molecular weight 46,000 in epithelial of the pilosebaceous tract and basal cell epithelioma. J Cell Biol 95: 285–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Moll R, Levy R, Czernobilsky B, Hohlweg-Majert P, Dallenbach-Hellweg G, Franke WW (1983) Cytokeratins of normal epithelia and some neoplasms of the female genital tract. Lab Invest 49: 599–610PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Moll R, Lowe A, Laufer J, Franke WW (1992) Cytokeratin 20 in human carcinoma. Am J Pathol 140: 1–2Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Moll R, Pitz S, Levy R, Weikel W, Franke WW, Czernobilsky B (1991) Complexity of expression of intermediate filament proteins, including glial filament protein, in endometrial and ovarian adenocarcinomas. Hum Pathol 22: 989–1001PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Moll R, Schiller DL, Franke WW (1990) Identification of protein IT of the intestinal cytoskeleton as a novel type I cytokeratin with unusual properties and expression patterns. J Cell Biol 111: 567–580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Monsonego J, Magdelenat H, Catalan F, Coscas Y, Zerat L, Sastre X (1991) Estrogen and progesterone receptors in cervical human papillomavirus related lesions. Int J Cancer 48: 533–539PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Morris WP, Griffin NR, Wells M (1989) Patterns of reactivity with the monoclonal antibodies HMFG1 and HMFG2 in normal endometrium, endometrial hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma. Histopathology 15: 179–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Mosny DS, Herholz J, Degen W, Bender HG (1989) Immunohistochemical investigations of steroid receptors in normal and neoplastic squamous epithelium of the uterine cervix. Gynecol Oncol 35: 373–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Mutch DG, Soper JT, Budwit-Novotny DA, et al (1987) Endometrial adenocarcinoma estrogen receptor content: Association of clinicopathologic features with immunohistochemical analysis compared with standard biochemical methods. Am J Obstet Gynecol 157: 924–931PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Nagle RB, Clark VA, McDaniel KM, Davis JR (1983) Immunohistochemical demonstration of keratins in human ovarian neoplasms. A comparative method. J Histochem Cytochem 31: 1010–1014PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Nagle RB, Lucas DO, McDaniel KM, Clark VA, Schmalzel GM (1985) New evidence linking mammary and extramammary Paget cells to a commoncell phenotype. Am J Clin Pathol 83: 431–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Navarro D, Cabrera JJ, Falcon O, et al (1989) Monoclonal antibody characterization of progesterone receptors, estrogen receptors and the stress-responsive protein of 27 kDa (SRP27) in human utrine leiomyoma. J Steroid Biochem 34: 491–498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Navarro D, Cabrera JJ, Leon L, et al (1992) Endometrial stromal sarcoma expression of estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors and estrogen-induced srp27 (24K) suggests hormone responsiveness. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 41: 589–596PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Neunteufel W, Breitenecker G (1989) Tissue expression of CA 125 in benign and malignant lesions of ovary and fallopian tube: A comparison with CA 19-9 and CE A. Gynecol Oncol 32: 297–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Neunteufel W, Breitenecker G (1989) CA 19-9, CA 125 and CEA in the endometrial mucosa during the menstrual cycle, in atypical hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma. Cancer Lett 48: 77–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Nonogaki H, Fujii S, Konishi I, et al (1990) Estrogen receptor localization in normal and neoplastic epithelium of the uterine cervix. Cancer 66: 2620–2627PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Norton AJ, Thomas JA, Isaacson PG (1987) Cytokeratinspecific antibodies are reactive with tumours of smooth muscle derivation. An immunohistochemical and biochemical study using antibodies to intermediate filament cytoskeletal proteins. Histopathology 11: 487–499PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Notohara K, Hsueh CL, Awai M (1990) Glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity of chondrocytes in immature and mature teratomas. Acta Pathol Jpn 40: 335–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Nozawa S, Yajima M, Sasaki H, et al (1991) A new CA125-like antigen (CA602) recognized by two monoclonal antibodies against a newly established ovarian clear cell carcinoma cell line (RMG-II). Jpn J Cancer Res 82: 854–861PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Okamoto A, Sameshima Y, Yamada Y, et al (1991) Allelic loss on chromosome 17p and p53 mutations in human endometrial carcinoma of the uterus. Cancer Res 51: 5632–5635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Ordonez NG, Freedman RS, Herlyn M (1987) Lewis and related tumor-associated determinants on ovarian carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 26: 1–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Pertschuk LP, Beddoe AM, Gorelic LS, Shain SA (1986) Immunocytochemical assay of estrogen receptors in endometrial carcinoma with monoclonal antibodies. Comparison with biochemical assay. Cancer 57: 1000–1004PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Poels LG, Peters D, van Megen Y, et al (1986) Monoclonal antibody against human ovarian tumor-associated antigens. J Natl Cancer Inst 76: 781–791PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Puts JJG, Moesker O, Aldeweireldt J, Vooijs GP, Ramaekers F (1987) Application of antibodies to intermediate filament proteins in simple and complex tumors of the female genital tract. Int J Gynecol Pathol 6: 257–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Puts JJG, Moesker O, Kenemans P, Vooijs GP, Ramaekers F (1985) Expression of cytokeratins in early neoplastic epithelial lesions of the uterine cervix. Int J Gynecol Pathol 4: 300–313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Quinn MA, Rome RM, Cauchi M, Fortune DW (1988) Steroid receptors and ovarian tumors: Variation within primary tumors and between primary tumors and metastases. Gynecol Oncol 31: 424–429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Raju GC (1988) Expression of the cytokeratin marker CAM 5.2 in cervical neoplasia. Histopathology 12: 437–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Ramaekers F, Puts J, Kenemans P, Vooijs GP (1985) Use of intermediate filament antibodies in the differential diagnosis of gynecological neoplasia. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 19: 347–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Ramaekers F, van Niekerk C, Poels L, et al (1990) Use of monoclonal antibodies to keratin 7 in the differential diagnosis of adenocarcinomas. Am J Pathol 136: 641–655PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Ramaekers F, Verheijen R, Moesker O, Kant A, Vooijs GP, Herman CY (1983) Mesodermal mixed tumors. Diagnosis by analysis of intermediate filament proteins. Am J Surg Pathol 7: 381–385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Ravn V, Jensen H, Hilgers J (1989) Human milk-fat globule membrane antigens (Mam-3 group) in normal cycling endometrium and endometrial carcinomas—an immunohistochemical study. A preliminary report. APMIS 97: 452–458PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Regauer S, Franke WW, Virtanen S (1985) Intermediate filament cytoskeleton of amnion epithelium and cultured amnion epithelial cells. Expression of epidermal cytokeratins in cells of a simple epithelium. J Cell Biol 100: 997–1009PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Runowicz CD, Nuchtern LM, Braunstein JD, Jones JG (1990) Heterogeneity in hormone receptor status in primary and metastatic endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol 38: 437–441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Sasagawa M, Watanabe S, Ohmomo Y, Honma S, Kanazawa K, Takeuchi S (1986) Reactivity of two monoclonal antibodies (Troma 1 and CAM 5.2) on human tissue sections: Analysis of their usefulness as a histological trophoblast marker in normal pregnancy and trophoblastic disease. Int J Gynecol Pathol 5: 345–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Scambia G, Panici PB, Baiocchi G, et al (1990) Steroid hormone receptors in carcinoma of the cervix: Lack of response to an antiestrogen. Gynecol Oncol 37: 323–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Schruch W, Skalli O, Seemayer TA, Gabbiani G (1987) Intermediate filament proteins and actin isoforms as markers for soft tissue tumor differentiation and origin. I. Smooth muscle tumors. Am J Pathol 128: 91–103Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Setzu A, Puligheddu P, Marcello C, et al (1987) Immunoperoxidase localization of HSV2 antigens in cervical dysplasia and carcinoma. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 8: 616–618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Shi SR, Key ME, Kalra KL (1991) Antigen retrieval in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues: An enhancement method for immunohistochemical staining based on microwave oven heating of tissue sections. J Histochem Cytochem 39: 741–748PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Shiozawa T, Tsukahara Y, Nakayama J, Ishii K, Katsuyama T (1991) Immunohistochemical localization of blood group substances in normal and neoplastic endometrial tissues— with special reference to type 1 core chain expression. Gynecol Obstet Invest 32: 185–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Shishi J, Ghazizadeh M, Oguro T, Aihara K, Araki T (1986) Immunohistochemical localization of CA 125 antigen in formalin-fixed paraffin sections of ovarian tumors with the use of Pronase. Am J Clin Pathol 85: 595–598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Silcocks PB, Herbert A, Wright DH (1986) Evaluation of PAS-diastase and carcinoembryonic antigen staining in the differential diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma and papillary serous carcinoma of the ovary. J Pathol 149: 133–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Skalli O, Gabbiani G (1990) Expression, organization, and involvement of intermediate filaments in disease processes. In: DeLellis RA (ed) Advances in Immunohistochemistry. Paris, Masson Publishing, pp 89–109Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Slamon DJ, Godolphin W, Jones LA, et al (1989) Studies of the HER-2/neu proto-oncogene in human breast and ovarian cancer. Science 244: 707–712PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Slotman BJ, Nauta JJ, Rao BR (1990) Survival of patients with ovarian cancer. Apart from stage and grade, tumor progesterone receptor content is a prognostic indicator. Cancer 66: 740–744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Smedts F, Ramaekers F, Robben H, et al (1992) Changing patterns of keratin expression during progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Am J Pathol 140: 601–612PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Smedts F, Ramaekers F, Troyanovsky S, et al (1992) Keratin expression in cervical cancer. Am J Pathol 141: 497–511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Smedts F, Ramaekers F, Troyanovsky S, et al (1992) Basalcell keratins in cervical reserve cells and a comparison to their expression in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Am J Pathol 140: 601–612PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Soisson AP, Berchuck A, Lessey BA, et al (1989) Immunohistochemical expression of TAG-72 in normal and malignant endometrium: Correlation of antigen expression with estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor levels. Am J Obstet Gynecol 161: 1258–1263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Soper JT, Christensen CW (1986) Steroid receptors and endometrial cancer. Clin Obstet Gynaecol 13: 825–842PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Steeper TA, Wick MR (1986) Minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix (“adenoma malignum”). An immunohistochemical comparison with microglandular endocervical hyperplasia and conventional endocervical adenocarcinoma. Cancer 58: 1131–1138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Sterrett GF, Alessandri LM, Pixley E, Kulski JK (1987) Assessment of precancerous lesions of the uterine cervix for evidence of human papillomavirus infection: A histological and immunohistochemical study. Pathology 19: 84–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Sutton GP, Senior MB, Strauss JF, Mikuta JJ (1986) Estrogen and progesterone receptors in epithelial ovarian malignancies. Gynecol Oncol 23: 176–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Sweeney EC, Barry-Walsh C, Robinson A (1983) Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of the ovary with heterologous elements and carcinoid: An immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study. Ultrastruct Pathol 5: 185–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Szpak CA, Soper JT, Thor A, Schlom J, Johnston WW (1989) Detection of adenocarcinoma in peritoneal washings by staining with monoclonal antibody B72.3. Acta Cytol 33: 205–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Tay SK, Jenkins D (1989) Langerhans cell population in early invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 29: 38–40Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Tay SK, Jenkins D, Singer A (1987) Natural killer cells in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and human pappilomavirus infection. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 94: 901–906PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Thomas P, Battifora H, Manderino GL, Patrick J (1987) A monoclonal antibody against neuron-specific enolase. Immunohistochemical comparison with a polyclonal antiserum. Am J Clin Pathol 88: 146–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Thor A, Ohuchi N, Szpak CA, Johnston WW, Schlom J (1986) Distribution of oncofetal antigen tumor-associated glycoprotein-72 defined by monoclonal antibody B72.3. Cancer Res 46: 3118–3124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Thor A, Viglione MJ, Muraro R, Ohuchi N, Schlom J, Gorstein F (1987) Monoclonal antibody B72.3 reactivity with human endometrium: A study of normal and malignant tissues. Int J Gynecol Pathol 6: 235–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Tippers D (1988) Smooth m uscle cells can express cytokeratins of “simple” epithelium. Am J Pathol 132: 223–232Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Tohya T, Iwamasa T, Maeyama M (1986) Biochemical and immunohistochemical studies on carcinoembryonic antigen of ovarian mucinous and serous tumors. Gynecol Oncol 23: 291–303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Tosi P, Sforza V, Santopietro R (1989) Estrogen receptor content, immunohistochemically determined by monoclonal antibodies, in endometrial stromal sarcoma. Obstet Gynecol 73: 75–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Tsao SW, Mok CH, Oike K, et al (1991) Involvement of p53 gene in the allelic deletion of chromosome 17p in human ovarian tumors. Anticancer Res 11: 1975–1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Tsukada T, Tippens D, Gordon D, Ross R, Gown AM (1987) HHF35, a muscle-actin-specific monoclonal antibody. I. Immunocytochemical and biochemical characterization. Am J Pathol 126: 51–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Tsukazaki K, Sakayori M, Arai H, Yamaoka K, Kurihara S, Nozawa S (1991) Abnormal expression of blood group-related antigens in uterine endometrial cancers. Jpn J Cancer Res 82: 934–941PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Ueda G, Yamasald M (1992) Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterus. Curr Top Pathol 85: 309–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    van Muijen G, Ruiter DY, Warnaar SO (1987) Coexpression of intermediate filament polypeptides in human fetal and adult tissues. Lab Invest 57: 359–369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    van Niekerk CC, Ramaekers F, Hanselaar AG, Aldeweireldt J, Poels LG (1993) Changes in expression of differentiation markers between normal ovarian cells and derived tumors. Am J Pathol 142: 157–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Veggian R, Fasolato S, Menard S, et al (1989) Immunohistochemical reactivity of a monoclonal antibody prepared against human ovarian carcinoma on normal and pathological female genital tissues. Tumori 75: 510–513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Vengerov YY, Gudima SO, Voronov AV, Votrin II (1988) Immunochemical studies of human placental alkaline phosphatase in normal and neoplastic tissues. Adv Enzyme Regul 27: 345–354Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Viale G, Gambacorta M, Dell’Orto P, Coggi G (1988) Coexpression of cytokeratins and vimentin in common epithelial tumours of the ovary: An immunocytochemical study of eighty-three cases. Virch Arch A (Pathol Anat) 413: 91–101Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Vogel HP, Mendelsohn G (1987) Laminin immunostaining in hyperplastic, dysplastic, and neoplastic lesions of the endometrium and uterine cervix. Obstet Gynecol 69: 794–799PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Ward BG, Lowe DG, Shepherd JH (1987) Patterns of expression of a tumor associated antigen, defined by the monoclonal antibody HMFG2, in human epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Comparison with expression of the HMFG1, AUA1 and F36/22 antigens. Cancer 60: 787–793PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Weiner SA, Alberts DS, Surwit EA, Davis J, Grosso D (1987) Tamoxifen therapy in recurrent epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 27: 208–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Whitaker JR, Samy AMJ, Sunter JP, Sinha DP, Monaghan JH (1989) Cytokeratin expression in cervical epithelium: An immunohistochemical study of normal, wart virus-infected and neoplastic tissue. Histopathology 14: 151–160Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Wolber RA, Dupuis BA, Wick MR (1991) Expression of c-erbB-2 oncoprotein in mammary and extramammary Paget’s disease. Am J Clin Pathol 96: 243–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Yamashita K, Nakamura T, Shimizu T, Ohno H (1986) Monoclonal antibodies to human choriocarcinoma. Am J Reprod Immunol Microbiol 11: 130–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Yang GC, Rotterdam H (1991) Mixed (composite) glandular-endocrine cell carcinoma of the stomach. Report of a case and review of literature. Am J Surg Pathol 15: 592–598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Yavner DL, Dwyer IM, Hancock WW, Ehrmann RL (1990) Basement membrane of cervical adenocarcinoma: An immunoperoxidase study of laminin and type IV collagen. Obstet Gynecol 76: 1014–1019PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Yokoyama S, Hayashida Y, Nagahama J, Nakayama I, Kashima K, Ogata J (1992) Primary and metaplastic choriocarcinoma of the bladder. A report of two cases. Acta Cytol 36: 176–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Young RH, Prat J, Scully RE (1982) Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors with heterologous elements. I Gastrointestinal epithelium and carcinoid: A clinicopathologic analysis of thirty-six cases. Cancer 50: 2448–2456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Zaino RJ, Clarke CL, Mortel R, Satyaswaroop PG (1988) Heterogeneity of progesterone receptor distribution in human endometrial adenocarcinoma. Cancer Res 48: 1889–1895PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Zirker TA, Silva EG, Morris M, Ordoñez NG (1989) Immunohistochemical differentiation of clear-cell carcinoma of the female genital tract and endodermal sinus tumor with the use of alpha-fetoprotein and Leu-M1. Am J Clin Pathol 91: 511–514PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Norio Azumi
  • Bernard Czernobilsky

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations