In the last four decades, cytopathology has become an essential technique in the detection and management of gynecological disease. Most notably, the success of cytological screening for cervical cancer has made the Pap smear a routine procedure. More recently, the diagnosis of fluids and fine-needle aspirates has been formally recognized in the staging of endometrial and ovarian cancer. Cytopathology practice continues to evolve, shaped by biological and clinical advances. Data establishing a causal relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer86 and the introduction of The Bethesda System108,109 have altered the diagnostic approach to cervical smears. The increasing incidence of cervical adenocarcinoma has fostered the development of more accurate cytological criteria for the diagnosis of this tumor and increased interest in its early detection.* In addition, growing reliance on laparoscopic examination and aspiration techniques to evaluate ovarian cysts has provided cytopathologists with the challenge of diagnosing lesions never before sampled.


Granulosa Cell Endometrial Carcinoma Bacterial Vaginosis Endometrial Cell Endometrial Adenocarcinoma 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark E. Sherman

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