Endometrial Carcinoma

  • Robert J. Kurman
  • Richard J. Zaino
  • Henry J. Norris


Endometrial carcinoma is the most common invasive neoplasm of the female genital tract and the fourth most frequently diagnosed cancer in the United States. In 1991 there were an estimated 33,000 new cases and approximately 4000 deaths resulting from this neoplasm.11,190 World-wide, approximately 150,000 cases are diagnosed each year, making endometrial carcinoma the fifth leading cancer in women.176 The incidence of endometrial cancer varies widely throughout the world. In developing countries in Asia, Africa, and South America as well as in Japan the incidence is four to five times lower than in industrialized countries in Europe and North America.67.


Endometrial Cancer Endometrial Carcinoma Clear Cell Carcinoma Serous Carcinoma Myometrial Invasion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Abeler VM, Kjorstad KE (1990) Serous papillary carcinoma of the endometrium: A histopathological study of 22 cases. Gynecol Oncol 39: 266–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abeler VM, Kjorstad KE, Nesland JM (1991) Undifferentiated carcinoma of the endometrium. Cancer 68: 98–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Abeler VM, Kjorstad KE (1992) Endometrial adenocarcinoma with squamous cell differentiation. Cancer 69: 488–495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 3a.
    Abeler VM, Kjorstad KE, Berle E (1992) Carcinoma of the endometrium in Norway: A histopathological and prognostic survey of a total population. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2: 9–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 4.
    Alberhasky RC, Connelly PJ, Christopherson WM (1982) Carcinoma of the endometrium. IV. Mixed adenos-quamous carcinoma. A clinicopathological study of 68 cases with long-term follow-up. Am J Clin Pathol 77: 655PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 5.
    Alders JG, Abeler V, Kolstad P (1984) Clinical (stage III) as compared to subclinical intrapelvic extrauterine tumor spread in endometrial carcinoma: A clinical and histopathological study of 175 patients. Gynecol Oncol 17: 64Google Scholar
  7. 6.
    Alders JG, Abeler V, Kolstad P (1982) Recurrent carcinoma of the endometrium: A clinical and pathological study of 379 patients. Gynecol Oncol 17: 85Google Scholar
  8. 7.
    Ambros RA, Kurman RJ (1992) Combined assessment of vascular and myometrial invasion as a model to predict prognosis in Stage 1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterine corpus. Cancer 69: 1424–1431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 8.
    Ambros RA, Kurman RJ (1992) Identification of patients with Stage 1 uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma at high risk of recurrence by DNA ploidy, myometrial invasion, and vascular invasion. Gynecol Oncol 45: 235–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 9.
    Ambros RA, Kurman RJ (1993) Association of ulex europaeus agglutinin I binding with invasion in endometrial carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol 12: 301–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 10.
    Ambros RA, Sherman ME, Zahn CM, Bitterman P, Kurman RJ (unpublished data)Google Scholar
  12. 11.
    American Cancer Society (1991) Cancer statistics. CA 41: 1.Google Scholar
  13. 12.
    Andersson M, Storm HH, Mouridsen HT (1991) Incidence of new primary cancers after adjuvant therapy and radiotherapy for early breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 83: 1013–1017PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 13.
    Arends J, Willebrand D, De Konigs, H, et al (1984) Adenocarcinoma of the endometrium with glassy cell features— immunohistochemical observations. Histopathology 8: 873–879PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 14.
    Atkin NB (1976) Prognostic significance of ploidy level in human tumors. I. Carcinoma of the uterus. J Natl Cancer Inst 56: 909PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 15.
    Aycock NR, Jollie WP, Dunn LJ (1979) An ultrastructural comparison of human endometrial adenocarcinoma with normal postmenopausal endometrium. Obstet Gynecol 53: 565PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 16.
    Bannatyne P, Russell P, Wills EJ (1983) Argyrophilia and endometrial carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2: 235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 17.
    Beck RP, Latour JPA (1963) Necropsy reports on 36 cases of endometrial carcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 85: 307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 18.
    Beckner ME, Mori T, Silverberg SG (1985) Endometrial carcinoma: Non-tumor factors in prognosis. Int J Gynecol Pathol 4: 131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 19.
    Beller U, Beckman M, Twombly GH (1984) Spontaneous regression of advanced endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 17: 381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 20.
    Benediktsdottir KR, Jonasson JG, Hallgrimsson J (1989) Tumours in Iceland: 12. Malignant tumours of the corpus of the uterus. APMIS 97: 781–786PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 21.
    Berchuck A, Rodrigues G, Kinney RB, et al (1991) Overexpression of HER-2/neu in endometrial cancer is associated with advanced stage disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol 164: 15–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 22.
    Bergeron C, Ferenczy A, Shyamala G (1988) Distribution of estrogen receptors in various cell types of normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic human endometrial tissues. Lab Invest 58: 338–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 23.
    Bergeron C, Ferenczy A, Toft DO, Shyamala G (1988) Immunocytochemical study of progesterone receptors in hyperplastic and neoplastic endometrial tissues. Cancer Res 48: 6132–6136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 24.
    Bitterman P, Chun BK, Kurman RJ (1990) The significance of epithelial differentiation in mixed mesodermal tumors of the uterus. A clinicopathologic and immunohis-tochemical study. Am J Surg Pathol 14: 317–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 25.
    Bokhman JV (1983) Two pathogenetic types of endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 15: 10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 26.
    Boltenberg A, Furgyik S, Kullander S (1990) Familial cancer aggregation in cases of adenocarcinoma corporis uteri. Acta Obstet Gynecol 69: 249–258Google Scholar
  28. 27.
    Borazjani G, Twiggs LB, Leung BS, Prem KA, Adcock LL, Carson LF (1989) Prognostic significance of steroid receptors measured in primary metastatic and recurrent endometrial carcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 161: 1253–1257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 28.
    Boronow RC, Morrow CP, Creasman WT, et al (1984) Surgical staging in endometrial cancer: Clinical-pathologic findings of a prospective study. Obstet Gynecol 63: 825–832PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 29.
    Britton LC, Wilson TO, Gaffey TA, Lieber MM, Wieland HS, Podratz KC (1989) Flow cytometric DNA analysis of Stage 1 endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 34: 317–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 30.
    Bulletti C, Galassi A, Jasonni VM, Martinelli G, Tabanelli S, Flamigni C (1988) Basement membrane components in normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic endometrium. Cancer 62: 142–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 31.
    Bunker M (1959) The terminal findings in endometrial carcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 77: 530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 32.
    Bur ME, Perlman C, Edelmann L, Fey E, Rose PG (1992) p53 expression in neoplasms of the uterine corpus. Am J Clin Pathol 98: 81–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 33.
    Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study of The Centers for Disease Control and The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Combination oral contraceptive use and the risk of endometrial cancer. JAMA (1987) 257: 796–800Google Scholar
  35. 34.
    Carcangiu ML, Chambers JT, Voynick IM, Pirro M, Schwartz PE (1990) Immunohistochemical evaluation of estrogen and progesterone receptor content in 183 patients with endometrial carcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol 94: 247–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 35.
    Carcangiu ML, Chambers JT (1992) Uterine papillary serous carcinoma: A study on 108 cases with emphasis on the prognostic significance of associated endometrioid carcinoma, absence of invasion, and concomitant ovarian carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 47: 298–305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 36.
    Cavazos F, Lucas RV (1973) Ultrastructure of the endometrium. In: Noms HJ, Hertig AT, Abel MR (eds) The uterus. Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins Co, p 136Google Scholar
  38. 37.
    Chalas E, Chumas J, Barbieri R, Mann WJ (1991) Nucleolar organizer regions in endometriosis, atypical endometriosis, and clear cell and endometrioid carcinomas. Gynecol Oncol 40: 260–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 38.
    Chambers JT, MacLusky N, Eisenfield A, Kohorn El, Lawrence R, Schwartz PE (1988) Estrogen and progestin receptor levels as prognosticators for survival in endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol 31: 65–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 39.
    Chambers JT, Carcangiu ML, Voynick IM, Schwartz PE (1990) Immunohistochemical evaluation of estrogen and progesterone receptor content in 183 patients with endometrial carcinoma. Part II: Correlation between biochemical and immunohistochemical methods and survival. Am J Clin Pathol 94: 255–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 40.
    Charles D (1967) Endometrial adenoacanthoma. A clinicopathologic study of 55 cases. Cancer 18: 737Google Scholar
  42. 41.
    Charpin C, Andrac L, Habib MC, et al (1989) Immunocytochemical assays in human endometrial carcinomas: A multiparametric computerized analysis and comparison with nonmalignant changes. Gynecol Oncol 33: 9–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 42.
    Chen J, Trost DC, Wilkinson EG (1985) Endometrial papillary adenocarcinomas: Two clinicopathologic types. Int J Gynecol Pathol 4: 279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 43.
    Chen KTK, Kostich ND, Rosai J (1978) Peritoneal foreign body granulomas to keratin in uterine adenoacanthoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med 108: 359Google Scholar
  45. 44.
    Cheon HK (1969) Prognosis of endometrial carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 34: 680PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 45.
    Christopherson WM, Alberhasky RC, Connelly PJ (1982) Carcinoma of the endometrium: I. A clinicopathologic study of clear-cell carcinoma and secretory carcinoma. Cancer 49: 1511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 46.
    Christopherson WM, Alberhasky RC, Connell PJ (1982) Glassy cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Hum Pathol 13: 421Google Scholar
  48. 47.
    Christopherson WM, Alberhasky RC, Connell PJ (1982) Carcinoma of the endometrium. II. Papillary adenocarcinoma: A clinical pathological study of 46 cases. Am J Clin Pathol 77: 534PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 48.
    Christopherson WM, Connelly PJ, Alberhasky RC (1983) Carcinoma of the endometrium. V. An analysis of prognosticators in patients with favorable subtypes and stage I disease. Cancer 51: 1705.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 49.
    Cohen C, Shulman G, Budgeon LR (1982) Endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma. An immunoperoxidase and histochemical study. Am J Surg Pathol 6: 151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 50.
    Coleman RL, Schink JC, Miller DS, et al (1993) DNA flow cytometric analysis of clinical stage. I. Endometrial carcinomas with lymph node metastasis. Gynecol Oncol 50: 20–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 51.
    Connelly PJ, Alberhasky RC, Christopherson WM (1982) Carcinoma of the endometrium. III. Analysis of 865 cases of adenocarcinoma and adeno-acanthoma. Obstet Gynecol 59: 569PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 52.
    Coutrier J, Vielh P, Salmon R, et al (1988) Chromosome imbalance in endometrial adenocarcinoma. Cancer Genetic Cytogenet 33: 67–76Google Scholar
  54. 53.
    Cowles TA, Maglina JF, Masterson BJ, et al (1985) Comparison of clinical and surgical staging in patients with endometrial carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 66: 413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 54.
    Creasman WT, DiSaia PJ, Blessing JA, et al (1981) Prognostic significance of peritoneal cytology in patients with endometrial cancer and preliminary data concerning therapy with intraperitoneal radiopharmaceuticals. Am J Obstet Gynecol 141: 921PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 55.
    Creasman WT, Soper JT, McCarty KS Jr, McCarty KS Sr, Hinshaw W, Clarke-Pearson DL (1985) Influence of cytoplasmic steroid receptor content on prognosis of early stage endometrial carcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 151: 922PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 56.
    Creasman WT, Henderson D, Hinshaw W, Clarke-Pearson DL (1986) Estrogen replacement therapy in the patient treated for endometrial carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 67: 326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 57.
    Creasman WT, Morrow CP, Bundy BN, Homesley HD, Graham JE, Heller PB (1987) Surgical pathological spread patterns of endometrial cancer: A Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Cancer 60: 2035–2041PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 58.
    Creasman WT (1989) Announcement, FIGO stages: 1988 revisions. Gynecol Oncol 35: 125–127Google Scholar
  60. 59.
    Cullen TS (1900) Cancer of the uterus: Its pathology, symptomatology, diagnosis and treatment. New York, D. Appleton, p 374Google Scholar
  61. 60.
    Czernobilsky B, Katz Z, Lancet M, Galton E (1980) Endocervical-type epithelium in endometrial carcinoma. A report of 10 cases with emphasis on histochemical methods for differential diagnosis. Am J Surg Pathol 4: 481PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 61.
    Dabbs DJ, Geisinger KR, Noms HJ (1986) Intermediate filaments in endometrial and endocervical carcinomas. The diagnostic utility of vimentin patterns. Am J Surg Pathol 10: 568–576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 62.
    Daniel AG, Peters WA III (1988) Accuracy of office and operating room curettage in the grading of endometrial carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 71: 612–614PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 63.
    DeBrito PA, Silverberg SG, Orenstein JM (1993) Carcinosarcoma (malignant mixed mullerian [mesodermal] tumor) of the female genital tract: Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis of 28 cases. Hum Pathol 24: 132–142Google Scholar
  65. 64.
    Deligdisch L, Cohen CJ (1985) Histologic correlates and virulence implications of endometrial carcinoma associated with adenomatous hyperplasia. Cancer 56: 1452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 65.
    Deligidish L, Holinka CF (1986) Progesterone receptors in two groups of endometrial carcinoma. Cancer 57: 1385–1388Google Scholar
  67. 66.
    Doering DL, Barnhill DR, Weiser ED, Burke TW, Woodward JE, Park RC (1989) Intraoperative evaluation of depth of myometrial invasion in stage I endometrial adenocarcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 74: 930–933PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 67.
    Doll R, Muir Waterhouse J (1970) Cancer incidence in five continents. International Union Against Cancer. Berlin, Springer-Verlag, Vol 2, p 44.Google Scholar
  69. 68.
    Dunn LJ, Merchang JA, Bradbury JT, Stone DB (1968) Glucose tolerance and endometrial cancer: A controlled study. Arch Intern Med 121: 246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 69.
    Dunton CJ, Balsara G, McFarland M, Hernandez E (1991) Uterine papillary serous carcinoma: A review. Obstet Gynecol Surv 46: 97–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 70.
    Dutra F (1959) Intraglandular morules of the endometrium. Am J Clin Pathol 31: 60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 71.
    Ehrlich CE, Young PCM, Cleary RE (1981) Cytoplasmic progesterone receptors in normal, hyperplastic, and carcinomatous endometrium: Therapeutic implications. Am J Obstet Gynecol 141: 539PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 72.
    Ehrlich CE, Young PCM, Stehman FB, Sutton GP, Alford WM (1988) Steroid receptors and clinical outcome in patients with adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. Am J Obstet Gynecol 158: 796–807PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 73.
    Eifel P, Hendrickson M, Ross J, et al (1982) Simultaneous presentation of carcinoma involving the ovary and uterine corpus. Cancer 50: 163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 74.
    Elliott EA, Matanosla GM, Rosenshein NB, Grumbine FC, Diamond EL (1990) Body fat patterning in women with endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol 39: 253–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 75.
    Elton NW (1942) Morphologic variations in adenocarcinoma of the fundus of the uterus, with reference to secretory activity and clinical interpretations. Am J Clin Pathol 12: 32Google Scholar
  77. 76.
    Emoto M, Iwasaki H, Kikuchi M, Shirakawa K (1993) Characteristics of cloned cells of mixed mullerian tumor of the human uterus. Cancer 71: 3065–3075PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 77.
    Enomoto T, Inoue M, Perantoni AO, Teranaka N, Tanizawa O, Rice JM (1990) K-ras activation in neoplasms of the human female reproductive tract. Cancer Res 50: 6139–6145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 78.
    Enomoto T, Fujita M, Inoue M, et al (1991) Alterations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene and its association with activation of the c-K-ras-2 protooncogene in premalignant and malignant lesions of the human uterine endometrium. Cancer Res 51: 5308–5314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 79.
    Escobedo LG, Lee NC, Peterson HB, Wingo PA (1991) Infertility-associated endometrial cancer risk may be limited to specific subgroups of infertile women. Obstet Gynecol 77: 124–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 80.
    Factor SM (1974) Papillary adenocarcinoma of the endometrium with psammoma bodies. Arch Pathol 98: 201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 81.
    Fanning J, Evans MC, Peters AJ, Samuel M, Harmon ER, Bates JS (1989) Endometrial adenocarcinoma histologic subtypes: Clinical and pathologic profile. Gynecol Oncol 32: 288–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 82.
    Farhi DC, Nosanchuk J, Silverberg SG (1986) Endometrial adenocarcinoma in women under 25 years of age. Obstet Gynecol 58: 741–745Google Scholar
  84. 83.
    Fluhmann CF (1928) Squamous epithelium in the endometrium in benign and malignant conditions. Surg Gynecol Obstet 47: 309Google Scholar
  85. 84.
    Fornander T, Cedermark B, Mattsson A, et al (1989) Adjuvant tamoxifen in early breast cancer. Occurrence of new primary cancer. Lancet i: 117–119Google Scholar
  86. 85.
    Franks AL, Kendrick JS, Tyler CW Jr (1987) Postmenopausal smoking, estrogen replacement therapy and the risk of endometrial cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol 156: 20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 86.
    Frick HC, Munnell EW, Richart RM, Berger AP, Lawry MF (1973) Carcinoma of the endometrium. Am J Obstet Gynecol 115: 663PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 87.
    Fu YS, Parks PJ, Reagen JW, Wentz WB, Storaasli JP (1979) The ultrastructure and factors relating to survival of endometrial cancers. Am J Diag Gynecol Obstet 1: 55Google Scholar
  89. 88.
    Fujimoto I, Shimizu Y, Hirai Y, et al (1993) Studies on ras oncogene in endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 48: 196–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 89.
    Fujita H, Wake N, Kutsuzawa T, et al (1985) Marker chromosomes of the long arm of chromosome 1 in endometrial carcinoma. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 18: 283–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 90.
    Furness PN, Lam EW (1987) Patterns of basement membrane deposition in benign, premalignant and malignant endometrium. J Clin Pathol 40: 1320–1323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 91.
    Gal D, Recio FO, Zamubrovic D, Tancer ML (1991) Lymphvascular space involvement—A prognostic indicator in endometrial adenocarcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 42: 142–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 92.
    Gallion HH, van Nagell JR, Powell DF, et al (1989) Stage I serous papillary carcinoma of the endometrium. Cancer 63: 2224–2228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 93.
    Gasparini G, Sposetti R, Pozza F, et al (1992) Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors in 232 patients with clinical stage 1 endometrial adenocarcinoma using the new FIGO surgical staging system. Int J Oncol 1: 665–672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 94.
    Geisinger KR, Homesley HD, Morgan TM, Kute TE, Marshall RB (1986) Endometrial adenocarcinoma. A multiparameter clinicopathologic analysis including the DNA profile and the sex steroid hormone receptors. Cancer 58: 1518–1525PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 95.
    George E, Manivel JC, Dehner LP, et al (1991) Malignant mixed mullerian tumors. An immunohistochemical study of 47 cases, with histogenetic considerations and clinical correlation. Hum Pathol 22: 215–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 96.
    Glicksman AS, Rawson RW (1956) Diabetes and altered carbohydrate metabolism in patients with cancer. Cancer 9: 1127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 97.
    Gorai I, Doi C, Minaguchi H (1993) Establishment and characterization of carcinosarcoma cell line of the human uterus. Cancer 71: 775–786PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 98.
    Gray LA, Christopherson WM, Hoover RN (1977) Estrogens and endometrial carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 49: 385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 99.
    Gray LA, Robertson RW, Christopherson WM (1971) Atypical endometrial changes associated with carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 2: 93Google Scholar
  101. 100.
    Greenwald P, Caputo TA, Wolfgang PE (1977) Endometrial cancer after menopausal use of estrogens. Obstet Gynecol 50: 239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 101.
    Gronroos M, Salmi TA, Vuento MH, et al (1993) Mass screening for endometrial cancer directed in risk groups of patients with diabetes and patients with hypertension. Cancer 71: 1279–1282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 102.
    Gusberg SB (1980) Current concepts in cancer. The changing nature of endometrial cancer. N Engl J Med 302: 729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 103.
    Gusberg SB (1989) Editorial. The rise and fall of endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol 35: 124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 104.
    Haenszel W, Kurihara M (1968) Studies of Japanese migrants. I. Mortality from cancer and other diseases among Japanese in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst 40: 43–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 105.
    Hall JB, Young RH, Nelson JH (1984) The prognostic significance of adenomyosis in endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 17: 32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 106.
    Hanson MB, van Nagell JR Jr, Powell DE, et al (1985) The prognostic significance of lymph-vascular space invasion in stage I endometrial cancer. Cancer 55: 1753PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 107.
    Hendrickson E (1975) The lymphatic dissemination in endometrial carcinoma. A study of 188 necropsies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 123: 570Google Scholar
  109. 108.
    Hendrickson M, Ross J, Eifel P, Martinez A, Kempson R (1982) Uterine papillary serous carcinoma. A highly malignant form of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 6: 93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 109.
    Hendrickson MR, Kempson RL (1983) Ciliated carcinoma—A variant of endometrial adenocarcinoma: A report of 10 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2: 1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 110.
    Hernandez E, Woodruff JD (1980) Endometrial adenocarcinoma arising in adenomyosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 138: 827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 111.
    Hetzel D, Wilson T, Keeney G, et al (1992) HER-2/neu expression: A major prognostic factor in endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol 47: 179–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 112.
    Hoffman MS, Cavanagh D, Walter TS, Ionata F, Ruffolo EH (1989) Adenocarcinoma of the endometrium and endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary associated with pregnancy. Gynecol Oncol 52: 82–85Google Scholar
  114. 113.
    Horgas G, Grubisic G, Spaventi S (1988) Trisomy and tetrasomy of the long arm of chromosome 1 in a direct preparation of human endometrial adenocarcinoma. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 35: 269–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 114.
    Horowitz RI, Horowitz SM, Feinstein AR, et al. (1981) Necropsy diagnosis of endometrial cancer and detectionbias in case control studies. Lancet ii: 66Google Scholar
  116. 114a.
    Hussain SF: (1988) Verrucous carcinoma of the endometrium. APMIS 96: 1075–1078PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 115.
    Hustin J (1973) Hormonal therapy on endometrial cancer: Effects of large doses given by parenteral or intracavity routes. In: Brush MG, Taylor RW, Williams DC (eds) Symposium on endometrial cancer. London, Cassell Ltd, p 246Google Scholar
  118. 116.
    Ikeda M, Watanabe Y, Nanjob T, Noda K (1993) Evaluation of DNA ploidy in endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol 50: 25–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 117.
    Inoue M, Ogawa H, Tanizawa O, Kobayashi Y, Tsujimoto M, Tsujimura T (1991) Immunodetection of sialyl-Tn antigen in normal, hyperplastic and cancerous tissues of the uterine endometrium. Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat 418: 157–162Google Scholar
  120. 118.
    Ignar-Trowbridge D, Risinger J, Dent G, et al. (1992) Mutations of the Ki-ras oncogene in endometrial carcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 167: 227–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 119.
    Inoue M, Nakayama M, Tanizawa O (1990) Altered expression of Lewis blood group and related antien in fetal, normal, and malignant tissues of the uterine endometrium. Virchows Arch (A) 416: 221–228Google Scholar
  122. 120.
    Jacques SM, Lawrence WD (1990) Endometrial adenocarcinoma with variable-level myometrial involvement limited to adenomyosis: A clinicopathologic study of 23 cases. Gynecol Oncol 37: 401–407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 121.
    Jones MA, Young RH, Scully RE (1991) Endometrial adenocarcinoma with a component of giant cell carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol 10: 260–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 122.
    Joseph MG, Fellows FG, Hearn SA (1990) Primary endodermal sinus tumor of the endometrium. Cancer 65: 297–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 123.
    Kacinski B, Carter D, Mittal K, et al. (1988) High level expression of fms proto-oncogene mRNA is observed in clinically aggressive human endometrial adenocarcinomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 15: 823–829PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 124.
    Kaku T, Silverberg SG, Tsukamoto N, et al. (1993) Association of endometrial epithelial metaplasias with endometrial carcinoma and hyperplasia in Japanese and American women. Int J Gynecol Pathol 12: 297–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 125.
    Kanbour AI, Stock RJ (1978) Squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the endometrium and fallopian tube as superficial extension of invasive cervical carcinoma. Cancer 42: 570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 126.
    Kanbour-Shakir A, Tobon H (1991) Primary clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium: A clinicopathologic study of 20 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 10: 67–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 127.
    Kim K, Scully RE (1990) Peritoneal keratin granulomas with carcinomas of endometrium and ovary and atypical polypoid adenomyoma of endometrium. Am J Surg Pathol 14: 925PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 128.
    Kirkpatrick JB (1967) Pathogenesis of foam cell lesions in irradiated arteries. Am J Pathol 50: 291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 129.
    Kleine W, Maier T, Geyer H, Pfleiderer A (1990) Estrogen and progesterone receptors in endometrial cancer and their prognostic relevance. Gynecol Oncol 38: 59–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 130.
    Kohler MF, Berchuck A, Davidoff AM, et al (1992) Overexpression and mutation of p53 in endometrial carcinoma. Cancer Res 52: 1622–1627PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 131.
    Koss LG, Schreiber K, Oberlander SG, Moussouris HF, Lesser M (1984) Detection of endometrial carcinoma and hyperplasia in asymptomatic women. Obstet Gynecol 64: 1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 132.
    Kraus FT (1973) Irradiation changes in the uterus. In: Noms HJ, Hertig AT, Abell MR (eds) The uterus. Baltimore, William and Wilkins Co, p 457Google Scholar
  135. 133.
    Kumar A, Schneider V (1983) Metastases to the uterus from extrapelvic primary tumors. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2: 134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 134.
    Kumar NB, Hart WR (1982) Metastases to the uterine corpus from extragenital cancers. A clinicopathologic study of 63 cases. Cancer 50: 2163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 135.
    Kuramoto H, Hamano M (1977) Cytogenetic studies of human endometrial carcinoma by means of tissue culture. Acta Cytol 4: 559–565Google Scholar
  138. 136.
    Kurman RJ, Noms HJ (1982) Evaluation of criteria for distinguishing atypical endometrial hyperplasia from well differentiated carcinoma. Cancer 49: 2547PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 137.
    Kurman RJ, Scully RE (1976) Clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium. An analysis of 21 cases. Cancer 37: 872PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 138.
    Kurman RJ, Kaminski PF, Noms HJ (1985) The behavior of endometrial hyperplasia. A long-term study of “untreated” hyperplasia in 170 patients. Cancer 56: 403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 139.
    Lauchlan SC (1981) Tubai (serous) carcinoma of the endometrium. Arch Pathol 105: 615Google Scholar
  142. 140.
    Lee KR, Belinson JL (1991) Recurrence in noninvasive endometrial carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 15: 965–973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 141.
    Lee RB, Burke TW, Park RC (1990) Estrogen replacement therapy following treatment for stage I endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 36: 189–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 142.
    Lesko SM, Rosenberg L, Kaufman DW, et al (1985) Cigarette smoking and the risk of endometrial cancer. N Engl J Med 313: 593PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 143.
    Lessey BA, Killam AP, Metzger DA, Haney AF, Greene GL, McCarty KS Jr (1988) Immunohistochemical analysis of human uterine estrogen and progesterone receptors throughout the menstrual cycle. Endocrinol Metab 67: 334–340Google Scholar
  146. 144.
    Levenback C, Burke TW, Silva E, et al (1992) Uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) treated with cisplatin, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (PAC). Gynecol Oncol 46: 317–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 145.
    Levi F, Franceschi S, Negri E, La Vecchia C (1993) Dietary factors and the risk of endometrial cancer. Cancer 71: 3575–3581PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 145a.
    Lewis BV, Stallworthy JA, Cowdell R (1970) Adenocarcinoma of the body of the uterus. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 77: 343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 146.
    Lindahl B, Alm P, Ferno M, Norgren A, Trope C (1984) Plasma steroid hormones, cytosol receptors, and thymidine incorporation rate in endometrial carcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 149: 607PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 147.
    LiVolsi VA (1977) Adenocarcinoma of the endometrium with psammoma bodies. Obstet Gynecol 50: 725PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 148.
    Long CA, O’Brien TJ, Sanders MM, Bard DS, Quirk JG Jr (1988) A ras oncogene is expressed in adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. Am J Obstet Gynecol 159: 1512–1515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 149.
    Longscope C, Pratt JH, Schneider SH, Fineberg SE (1978) Aromatization of androgens by muscle and adipose tissue in vivo. J Clin Endocrinol Metabl 46: 146Google Scholar
  153. 150.
    Lucas WE, Yen SSC (1979) A study of endocrine and metabolic variables in postmenopausal women with endometrial carcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 134: 180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 151.
    Lutz MH, Underwood PB Jr, Kreutner A Jr, et al (1978) Endometrial carcinoma: A method of classification of therapeutic and prognostic significance. Gynecol Oncol 6: 83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 152.
    Lynch HT, Krush AH, Larsen AL (1967) Heredity and endometrial carcinoma. South Med J 60: 231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 153.
    Mack TM, Pike MC, Henderson BE, et al (1976) Estrogens and endometrial cancer in a retirement community. N Engl J Med 294: 1262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 154.
    McDonald TW, Annegers JF, O’Fallon WM, Dockerty MB, Malkasian GD, Kurland LT (1977) Exogenous estrogen and endometrial carcinoma: Case-control and incidence study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 127: 572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 155.
    McLellan R, Dillon MB, Currie JL, Rosenshein NB (1989) Peritoneal cytology in endometrial cancer: A review. Obstet Gynecol Surv 44: 711–719PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 156.
    Mecklin J-P, Jarvinen HJ, Peltopallio P (1986) Cancer family syndrome: Genetic analysis of 22 Finnish kindreds. Gastroenterology 90: 328–333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 157.
    Meis JM, Lawrence WD (1990) The immunohistochemical profile of malignant mixed mullerian tumor. Overlap with endometrial adenocarcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol 94: 1–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 158.
    Melhem MF, Tobon H (1987) Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the endometrium: A clinicopathological review of 18 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 6: 347–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 159.
    Melin JR, Wanner L, Schulz DM, Cassell EE (1979) Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Obstet Gynecol 53: 115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 160.
    Mitchell H, Giles G, Medley G (1993) Accuracy and survival benefit of cytological prediction of endometrial carcinoma on routine cervical smears. Int J Gynecol Pathol 12: 34–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 161.
    Mittal KR, Barwick KW (1993) Endometrial adenocarcinoma involving adenomyosis without true myometrial invasion is characterized by frequent preceding estrogen therapy, low histologic grades, and excellent prognosis. Gynecol Oncol 49: 197–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 162.
    Mizuuchi W, Masims S, Kudo R, et al (1992) Clinical implications of K-Ras mutations in malignant epithelial tumors of the endometrium. Cancer Res 52: 2777–2781PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 163.
    Morrow CP, Bundy BN, Kurman RJ, et al (1991) Relationship between surgical-pathological risk factors and outcome in clinical stage I and II carcinoma of the endometrium: A Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 40: 55–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 164.
    Musubuchi K, Nemoto H (1972) Epidemiologic studies on uterine cancer at Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. Cancer 30: 268Google Scholar
  168. 165.
    Nahhas WA, Lund CJ, Rudolph JH (1971) Carcinoma of the corpus uteri: A 10-year review of 225 patients. Obstet Gynecol 38: 564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 166.
    Ng ABP (1968) Mixed carcinoma of the endometrium. Am J Obstet Gynecol 102: 506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 167.
    Ng ABP, Reagan JW, Storaasli JP, Wentz WB (1973) Mixed adenosquamous carcinoma of the endometrium. Am J Clin Pathol 59: 765PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 168.
    Nielsen AL, Thomsen HK, Nyholm HCJ (1991) Evaluation of the reproducibility of the revised 1988 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grading system of endometrial cancers with special emphasis on nuclear grading. Cancer 68: 2303–2309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 169.
    Nielsen AN, Nyholm HCJ (1993) Proliferating cell nuclear antigen in endometrial adenocarcinomas of endometrioid type correlated with histologie grade, stage, previous hormonal treatment, and survival. Hum Pathol 24: 1003–1007PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 170.
    Noumoff JS, Menzin A, Mikuta J, Lusk EJ, Morgan M, LiVolsi VA (1991) The ability to evaluate prognostic variable on frozen section in hysterectomies performed for endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 42: 202–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 171.
    Novak ER, Nalley WB (1957) Uterine adenocanthoma. Obstet Gynecol 9: 396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 172.
    Nyholm HCJ, Nielsen AL, Norup P (1993) Endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women with and without previous estrogen replacement treatment: Comparison of clinical and histopathological characteristics. Gynecol Oncol 49: 229–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 173.
    Nyholm HCJ, Nielsen AL, Ottesen B (1993) Expression of epidermal growth factor receptors in human endometrial carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol 12: 241–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 174.
    Okamoto A, Sameshima Y, Yamada Y, et al. (1991) Allelic loss of chromosome 17p and p53 mutation in human endometrial carcinoma of the uterus. Cancer Res 51: 5632–5636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 175.
    Palmer DC, Muir IM, Alexander AI, Cauchi M, Bennett RC, Quinn MA (1988) The prognostic importance of steroid receptors in endometrial carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 72: 388–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 176.
    Pararzzini F, La Vecchia C, Bocciolone L, Franceschi S (1991) The epidemiology of endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol 41: 1–16Google Scholar
  180. 177.
    Persson I, Adami H-O, Bergkvist L, et al. (1989) Risk of endometrial cancer after treatment with oestrogens alone or in conjunction with progestogens: Results of a prospective study. Br Med J 298: 147Google Scholar
  181. 178.
    Pesce C, Merino MJ, Chambers JT, Nogales F (1991) Endometrial carcinoma with trophoblastic differentiation. Cancer 68: 1799–1802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 179.
    Peterson EP (1968) Endometrial carcinoma in young women. A clinical profile. Obstet Gynecol 31: 702PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 180.
    Photopulos GJ, Carney CN, Edelman DA, Hughes RR, Fowler WC Jr, Walton LA (1979) Clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Cancer 43: 1448–1456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 181.
    Piver MS, Lele S, Barlow J, et al (1982) Parraortic lymph node evaluation in stage I endometrial cancer. Obstet Gynecol 59: 97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 182.
    Podczaski E, Kaminski P, Gursfi K, et al. (1992) Detection and patterns of treatment failure in 300 consecutive cases of early endometrial cancer after primary surgery. Gynecol Oncol 47: 323–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 183.
    Podczaski E, Kaminski P, Zaino R (1993) CA125 and CAI9-9 immunolocalization in normal, hyperplastic and carcinomatous endometrium. Cancer 71: 2551–2556PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 184.
    Prem KA, Mensheha NM, McKelvey JL (1965) Operative treatment in adenocarcinoma of the endometrium in obese women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 92: 16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 185.
    Press MF, Nousek-Goebel N, Greene GL (1985) Immunoelectron microscopic localization of estrogen receptor with monoclonal estrophilin antibodies. J Histochem Cytochem 33: 915PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 186.
    Press MF, Udove JA, Greene GL (1988) Progesterone receptor distribution in human endometrium. Analysis using monoclonal antibodies to the human progesterone receptor. Am J Pathol 131: 112–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 187.
    Quinn CM, Wright AA (1990) The clinical assessment of proliferation and growth in human tumors: Evaluation of methods and applications as prognostic variables. J Pathol 160: 93–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 188.
    Ramirez-Gonzalex CE, Adamsons K, Mangual-Vazquez TY, Wallach RC (1987) Papillary adenocarcinoma in the endometrium. Obstet Gynecol 70: 212–214Google Scholar
  192. 189.
    Richart RM, Ferenczy A (1974) Endometrial morphologie response to hormonal environment. Gynecol Oncol 2: 180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 190.
    Ries LAG, Hankey BF, Miller BA, Hartman AM, Edwards BK (1991) Cancer Statistics Review 1973-1978. National Cancer Institute. NIH Pub. No. 91-2789Google Scholar
  194. 191.
    Risberg B, Grotott O, Westholm B (1983) Origin of carcinoma in secretory endometrium—A study using a whole organ sectioning technique. Gynecol Oncol 15: 32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 192.
    Robboy SJ, Bradley R (1979) Changing trends and prognostic features in endometrial cancer associated with exogenous estrogen therapy. Obstet Gynecol 54: 269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 193.
    Robboy SJ, Miller AW III, Kurman RJ (1982) The pathologic features and behavior of endometrial carcinoma associated with exogenous estrogen administration. Pathol Res Pract 174: 237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 194.
    Roberts DWT (1961) Carcinoma of the body of the uterus at Chelsea Hospital for Women, 1943-1953. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 68: 132Google Scholar
  198. 195.
    Rorat E, Ferenczy A, Richart RM (1974) The ultrastructure of clear cell adenocarcinoma of endometrium. Cancer 33: 880PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 196.
    Ross J, Eifel PH, Cox RS, Kempson RL, Hendrickson MR (1983) Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. A clinicopathologic and histochemical study. Am J Surg Pathol 7: 715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 197.
    Runowicz CD, Nuchtern LM, Rraunstein JD, Jones JG (1990) Heterogeneity in hormone receptor status in primary and metastatic endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol 38: 437–441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 197a.
    Ryder DE (1982) Verrucous carcinoma of the endometrium—a unique neoplasm with long survival. Obstet Gynecol 59: 78S–80SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 198.
    Salazar OM, DePapp EW, Bonfiglio TA, Feldstein MK, Rubin P, Rudolph JH (1977) Adenosquamous carcinoma of the endometrium. An entity with an inherently poor prognosis? Cancer 40: 119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 199.
    Salazar OM, Feldstein ML, De Papp EW, et al (1977) Endometrial carcinoma: Analysis of failures with special emphasis on the use of initial preoperative external pelvic radiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2: 1101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 200.
    Salm R (1962) Mucin production of normal and abnormal endometrium. Arch Pathol 73: 30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 201.
    Sandles LG, Shulman LP, Elias S, et al. (1992) Endometrial adenocarcinoma: Genetic analysis suggesting heritable sitespecific uterine cancer. Gynecol Oncol 47: 167–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 202.
    Sassano H, Nagura H, Watanabe K, et al. (1993) Tenascin expression in normal and abnormal human endometrium. Mod Pathol 6: 323–326Google Scholar
  207. 203.
    Sato N, Mori T, Orenstein JM, Silverberg SG (1984) Ultrastructure of papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2: 337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 204.
    Schenker JG, Weinstein D, Okon E (1979) Estradiol and testosterone levels in the peripheral and ovarian circulations in patients with endometrial cancer. Cancer 44: 1809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 205.
    Scully RE, Poulson H, Sobin LH (1994) International histological classification and histologic typing of female genital tract tumors. Berlin, Springer-VerlagGoogle Scholar
  210. 206.
    Scully RE, Aguirre P, DeLellis RA (1984) Argyrophilia, serotonin, and peptide hormones in the female genital tract and its tumors. Int J Gynecol Pathol 3: 51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 207.
    Scully RE, Richardson G, Barlow JF (1966) The development of malignancy in endometriosis. Clin Obstet Gynecol 9: 384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 208.
    Segreti EM, Novotny DB, Soper JT, Mutch DG, Creasman WT, McCarty KS (1989) Endometrial cancer: Histologic correlates of immunohistochemical localization of progesterone receptor and estrogen receptor. Obstet Gynecol 73: 780–784PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 209.
    Sekiya S, Takeda B, Kikuchi Y, Sakaguchi S, Takamizawa H (1977) Morphologic and enzyme-cytochemical changes in uterine adenocarcinoma cells of a rat by direct application of progesterone in vitro. Gynecol Oncol 5: 5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 210.
    Seoud M A-F, Johns J, Weed JC Jr (1993) Gynecologic tumors in tamoxifen-treated women with breast cancer. Obstet Gynecol 82: 165–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 211.
    Sherman ME, Bitterman P, Rosenshein NB, Delgado G, Kurman RJ (1992) Uterine serous carcinoma. A morphologically diverse neoplasm with unifying clinicopathologic features. Am J Surg Pathol 16: 600–610PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 212.
    Shim JU, Rose PG, Reale FR, Soto H, Tak WK, Hunter RE (1992) Accuracy of frozen-section diagnosis at surgery in clinical stage I and II endometrial carcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 166: 1335–1338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 213.
    Silva EG, Jenkins R (1990) Serous carcinoma in endometrial polyps. Mod Pathol 3: 120–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 214.
    Silverberg SG, DeGiorgi LS (1973) Clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium: Clinical, pathologic, and ultrastructural findings. Cancer 31: 1127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 215.
    Silverberg SG, Sasano N, Yajima A (1982) Endometrial carcinoma in Miyagi Perfecture, Japan: Histopathologic analysis of a cancer-based series and comparison with cases in American women. Cancer 49: 1504PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 216.
    Silverberg SG, Mullen D, Faraci JA, et al. (1980) Endometrial carcinoma: Clinical-pathologic comparison of cases in postmenopausal women receiving and not receiving estrogens. Cancer 45: 3018PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 217.
    Silverberg SG, Major FJ, Blessing JA, et al. (1990) Carcinosarcoma (malignant mixed mesodermal tumor) of the uterus. Int J Gynecol Pathol 9: 1–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 218.
    Silverberg SG (1981) Significance of squamous elements in carcinoma of the endometrium: A review. Prog Surg Pathol 4: 115Google Scholar
  223. 219.
    Silverberg SG, Kurman RJ (1992) Tumors of the uterine corpus and gestational trophoblastic disease. Atlas of tumor pathology. Third Series Fascicle, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC, p 82Google Scholar
  224. 220.
    Simon A, Kopolovic J, Beyth Y (1988) Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Gynecol Oncol 31: 454–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 221.
    Slot E (1980) Cytogenetics of carcinoma of the endometrium. I. The study on ploidy. Neoplasia 27: 483–488Google Scholar
  226. 222.
    Smith DC, Prentice R, Thompson DJ, Hermann WL (1975) Association of exogenous estrogen and endometrial carcinoma. N Engl J Med 293: 1164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 223.
    Smith J, Yeh G (1992) Telomere reduction in endometrial adenocarcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 167: 1883–1887PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 224.
    Smith M, McCartney AJ (1985) Occult, high-risk endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol 22: 154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 225.
    Soisson AP, Berchuck A, Lessey BA, et al. (1989) Immunohistochemical expression of TAG-72 in normal and malignant endometrium: Correlation of antigen expression with estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor levels. Am J Obstet Gynecol 161: 1258–1263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 226.
    Steinhorn SC, Myers MH, Hankey BF, Pelham VF (1986) Factors associated with survival differences between black and white women with cancer of the uterine corpus. Am J Epidemiol 124: 85–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 227.
    Stendahl U, Strang P, Wagenius G, Bergstrom R, Tribukait B (1991) Prognostic significance of proliferation in endometrial adenocarcinomas: A multivariate analysis of clinical and flow cytometric variables. Int J Gynecol Pathol 10: 271–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 228.
    Suit HD, Gallagher HS (1964) Intact tumor cells in irradiated tissue. Arch Pathol 78: 648PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 229.
    Sutton GP, Brill L, Michael H, Stehman FB, Ehrlich CE (1987) Malignant papillary lesions of the endometrium. Gynecol Oncol 27: 294–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 230.
    Suzuki A, Konishi I, Okamura H, Makashima N (1984) Adenocarcinoma of the endometrium associated with intrauterine pregnancy. Gynecol Oncol 18: 261–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 231.
    Thor A, Vigilone MJ, Muraro R, Ohuchi N, Schlom J, Gorstein F (1987) Monoclonal antibody B72.3 reactivity with human endometrium: A study of normal and malignant tissues. Int J Gynecol Pathol 6: 235–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 232.
    Thrasher TV, Richart RM (1972) An ultrastructural comparison of endometrial adenocarcinoma and normal endometrium. Cancer 29: 1713PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 233.
    Tiltman AJ (1980) Mucinous carcinoma of the endometrium. Obstet Gynecol 55: 244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 234.
    Tobon H, Watkins GJ (1985) Secretory adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. Int J Gynecol Pathol 4: 328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 235.
    Tornos C, Silva EG, El-Naggar A, Burke TW (1992) Aggressive stage 1 and grade 1 endometrial carcinoma. Cancer 70: 790–798PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 236.
    Tseng PC, Sprance HE, Carcangiu ML, Chambers JT, Schwartz PE (1989) CA125, NB/70K, and lipid-associated sialic acid in monitoring uterine papillary serous carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 74: 384–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 237.
    Tubiana M (1971) The kinetics of tumour cell proliferation and radiotherapy. Br J Radiol 44: 325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 238.
    Turner DA, Gershenson DM, Atkinson N, Sneige N, Wharton AT (1989) The prognostic significance of peritoneal cytology for Stage 1 endometrial cancer. Obstet Gynecol 74: 775–780PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 239.
    Ueda G, Yamasaki M, Inoue M, Kurachi K (1979) A clinicopathologic study of endometrial carcinomas with argyrophil cells. Gynecol Oncol 7: 223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 240.
    Ueda G, Sato Y, Yamasaki M, et al (1978) Argyrophil cell adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. Gynecol Oncol 6: 467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 241.
    Ulbright TM, Roth LM (1985) Metastatic and independent cancers of the endometrium and ovary: A clinicopathologic study of 34 cases. Hum Pathol 16: 28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 242.
    Van Dam PA, Watson JV, Lowe DG, Shepherd JH (1992) Flow cytometric DNA analysis in gynecological oncology. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2: 57–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 243.
    Vardi JR, Tadros GH, Zafaranloo S, Kapadia L, Alderete MN, Shebes ML (1989) Case report. Stage IV endometrial carcinoma in a 25-year-old woman: A case report and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol 34: 244–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 244.
    Vogel HP, Mendelsohn G (1987) Laminin immunostaining in hyperplastic, dysplastic and neoplastic lesions of the endometrium and the uterine cervix. Obstet Gynecol 69: 794–799PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 245.
    Wahlstrom T, Korhonen M, Lindgren J, Markku S (1979) Distinction between endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma with immunoperoxidase staining of carcinoembryonic antigen in routine histologic tissue sections. Lancet 2: 1159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 246.
    Walker AM, Jick H (1979) Cancer of the corpus uteri: Increasing incidence in the United States. Am J Epidemiol 110: 47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 247.
    Walker AM, Jick H (1980) Declining rates of endometrial cancer. Obstet Gynecol 56: 733PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 248.
    Ward B, Wright RK (1990) Free papillary carcinoma of the endometrium. Gynecol Oncol 39: 347–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 249.
    Warhol MJ, Rice RH, Pinkus GS, Robboy SJ (1984) Evaluation of squamous epithelium in adenoacanthoma and adenosquamous carcinoma of the endometrium: Immunoperoxidase analysis of involucrin and keratin localization. Int J Gynecol Pathol 3: 82–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 250.
    Warren S (1961) The pathology of ionizing radiation. Springfield, 111, Charles C ThomasGoogle Scholar
  255. 251.
    Way S (1954) The aetiology of carcinoma of the body of the uterus. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Emp 61: 46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 252.
    Webb GA, Lagios MD (1987) Clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Am J Obstet Gynecol 156: 1486–1491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 253.
    Weiner J, Bigelow B, Demopoulis RI (1980) The value of endocervical sampling in the staging of endometrial carcinoma. Diag Gynecol Obstet 2: 265Google Scholar
  258. 254.
    Wick MR, Nappi O (1993) Sarcomatoid carcinomas and carcinosarcomas. Semin Diag Pathol 10: 117–201Google Scholar
  259. 255.
    Wilkinson N, Buckley CH, Chawner L, Fox H (1990) Nucleolar organizer regions in normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic endometria. Int J Gynecol Pathol 9: 55–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 256.
    Wynder EL, Escher GC, Mantel N (1966) An epidemiological investigation of cancer of the endometrium. Cancer 19: 489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 257.
    Yabushita H, Masuda T, Sawaguchi K, et al (1992) Growth potential of endometrial cancers assessed by a Ki-67 Ag/DNA dual-color flow-cytometric assay. Gynecol Oncol 44: 263–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 258.
    Yazigi R, Piver MS, Blumenson L (1983) Malignant peritoneal cytology as a prognostic indicator in stage I endometrial cancer. Obstet Gynecol 62: 359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 259.
    Yoonessi M, Anderson DG, Morley GW (1979) Endometrial carcinoma: Causes of death and sites of treatment failure. Cancer 43: 1944PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 260.
    Yorishima M, Hiura M, Moriwaki S, et al (1989) Clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium with lipid-producing activity. Int J Gynecol Pathol 8: 286–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 261.
    Young RH, Scully RE (1992) Uterine carcinomas simulating microglandular hyperplasia. Am J Surg Pathol 16: 1092–1097PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 262.
    Zaino RJ, Stayaswaroop PG, Mortel R (1984) Morphology of human uterine cancer in nude mice. Effects of hormone and antihormone treatment. Arch Pathol Lab Med 108: 571–578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 263.
    Zaino RJ, Clarke CL, Mortel R, Satyaswaroop PG (1988) Heterogeneity of progesterone receptor distribution in human endometrial adenocarcinoma. Cancer Res 48: 1889–1895PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 264.
    Zaino RJ, Kurman RJ (1988) Squamous differentiation in carcinoma of the endometrium: A critical appraisal of adenoacanthoma and adenosquamous carcinoma. Semin Diagn Pathol 5: 154–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 265.
    Zaino RJ, Kurman RJ, Herbold D, et al. (1991) The significance of squamous differentiation in endometrial carcinoma: Data from a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Cancer 68: 2293–3202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. 266.
    Zaino RJ, Diana KL, Kurman RJ (unpublished data)Google Scholar
  271. 267.
    Ziel HK, Finkle WD (1975) Increased risk of endometrial carcinoma among users of conjugated estrogens. N Engl J Med 293: 1167PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert J. Kurman
  • Richard J. Zaino
  • Henry J. Norris

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations