The spacetime of general relativity and paths of particles

  • James Foster
  • J. David Nightingale


Einstein’s general theory of relativity postulates that gravitational effects may be explained by the curvature of spacetime (modeled by a four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian manifold) and that gravity should not be regarded as a force in the conventional sense. To get a preliminary idea of what is involved, we shall follow the practice of a number of authors1 and consider ants crawling over a curved surface, namely the skin of an apple.


Covariant Derivative Special Relativity Free Particle Tensor Field Parallel Transport 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • James Foster
    • 1
  • J. David Nightingale
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Mathematical SciencesUniversity of SussexFalmer, BrightonUK
  2. 2.Department of Physics, The College at New PaltzState University of New YorkNew PaltzUSA

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