Underwater Sound

  • Thomas D. Rossing
  • Neville H. Fletcher


Although oceans cover over 70% of the earth’s surface, only in recent years has oceanography become a major science. Sound waves are widely used to explore the oceans, because they travel much better in sea water than do light waves. Likewise, sound waves are used, by humans and dolphins alike, to communicate under water, because they travel much better than do radio waves.


Sound Wave Sound Speed Ambient Noise Ocean Bottom Sonar System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bragg, W. (1968). “The World of Sound.” Dover, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Barger, J.E. (1997). Sonar systems. “Encyclopedia of Acoustics,” ed. M.J. Crocker. Wiley, New York. Chap. 49.Google Scholar
  3. Cato, D.H. and McCauley, R.D. (2002). Australian research in ambient sea noise. Acoustics Australia 30, 13–20.Google Scholar
  4. Crawford, F.S. (1982). The hot chocolate effect. Am. J. Phys. 50, 389–404. Crum, L.A. (1994). Sonoluminescence. Phys. Today 47 (9), 22–29.Google Scholar
  5. Dyer, I. (1997). Ocean ambient noise. “Encyclopedia of Acoustics,” ed. M.J. Crocker. Wiley, New York. Chap. 48.Google Scholar
  6. Feuillade, C. (1995). Scattering from collective modes of air bubbles in water and the physical mechanism of superresonances. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 1178–1190.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gaitan, D.F., Crum, L.A., Roy, R.A. and Church, C.C. (1992). Sonoluminescence and bubble dynamics for a single, stable cavitation bubble, I Acoust. Soc. Am. 91, 3166–3188.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kuperman, W.A. (1997). Propagation of Sound in the Ocean. “Encyclopedia of Acoustics,” ed. M.J. Crocker. Wiley, New York. Chap. 36.Google Scholar
  9. McKinney, C.M. (2002). The Early History of High Frequency, Short Range, High Resolution, Active Sonar. ECHOES 12(2), 4–7 (also presented at the 142nd ASA meeting, Dec. 2001 ).Google Scholar
  10. Medwin, H. and Beaky, M.M. (1989). Bubble sources of the Knudsen sea noise spectra. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 1124–1130.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Medwin, H. and Clay, C.S. (1998). “Fundamentals of Acoustical Oceanography.” Academic Press, Boston.Google Scholar
  12. Minnaert, M. (1933). On musical air bubbles and the sounds of running water. Phil. Mag. 16, 235–248.Google Scholar
  13. Morrison, A. and Rossing, T.D. (2002). Sound of a cup with and without instant coffee. Paper 3aMU3, 143rd meeting, Acoust. Soc. Am.Google Scholar
  14. Norwood, C. (2002). An introduction to ship radiated noise. Acoustics Australia 30, 21–25.Google Scholar
  15. Strasberg, M. (1959). Onset of ultrasonic cavitation in tap water. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 31, 163–176.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Urick, R.J. (1983). “Principles of underwater sound,” 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York. Chap. 11.Google Scholar
  17. Wenze, G.M. (1962). Ambient noise in the ocean: spectra and sources. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 34, 1936–1956.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Wood, A.B. (1955). “A textbook of sound.” Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas D. Rossing
    • 1
  • Neville H. Fletcher
    • 2
  1. 1.Physics DepartmentNorthern Illinois UniversityDeKalbUSA
  2. 2.Department of Physical Sciences Research School of Physical Sciences and EngineeringAustralian National UniversityCanberraAustralia

Personalised recommendations