In a free field, the sound pressure at a distance r from the source is proportional to 1 / r and the sound intensity to 1 / r 2, as we have discussed in Chapters 6 and 11. Ideally, an outdoor environment away from sound-reflecting buildings and other hard surfaces could be considered a free field. However, effects such as atmospheric absorption, turbulence, refraction, diffraction, and the proximity of the ground make the description of sound propagation outdoors somewhat more complicated and interesting. In this chapter we will consider outdoor sound propagation with particular attention to the propagation of noise outdoors, which has become such an important environmental consideration. Some consideration will be given to the control of noise outdoors.
KeywordsSound Propagation Temperature Inversion Sound Field Noise Outdoors Aircraft Noise
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