Sound in Concert Halls and Studios

  • Thomas D. Rossing
  • Neville H. Fletcher


When music or speech is heard indoors, most of the sound waves that reach the listeners’ars have been reflected by one or more surfaces of the room or by objects within the room. Typically, sound waves undergo many reflections before they become inaudible. It is not surprising, then, that the acoustical properties of the room play an important role in determining the nature of the sound heard by a listener. Performers in a concert hall, teachers in a classroom, actors in a theater, and speakers in a church or assembly hall all depend upon the acoustics of the room in which they attempt to communicate with their audience. When we listen to recorded music or watch television or home movies in our living rooms, the acoustics of the room also has much to do with the quality of the sound we hear. Recording studios, large and small, have their own special acoustical requirements, and many musicians are creating small studios to make demonstration records.


Sound Pressure Sound Wave Sound Pressure Level Sound Field Sound Absorption 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References and Suggested Reading

  1. ASA (2000, 2003 ). “Classroom Acoustics P’ and ”Classroom Acoustics II,“ Acoust, Soc. Am., Melville, N.Y.Google Scholar
  2. Barron, M. (1971). The subjective effects of first reflections in concert halls—The need for lateral reflections, J. Sound Vib. 15, 475–494.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beranek, L.L. (1996). “Concert and Opera Halls: How They Sound.” Acoustical Society of America, Melville, N.Y.Google Scholar
  4. Bies, D.A. and Hansen, C.H. (1997). Sound Absorption in Enclosures. “Encyclope-Google Scholar
  5. dia of Acoustics,“ vol. 3, ed. M.J. Crocker, Wiley, New York, Chap. 92. Cremer, L., Müller, H.A., and Schultz, T.J. (1982). ”Principles and Applications ofGoogle Scholar
  6. Room Acoustics,“ vol. 1. Applied Science Publisher, London.Google Scholar
  7. Embleton, T.F.W. (1971). Sound in Large Rooms. “Noise and Vibration Control,” ed. L.L. Beranek, McGraw-Hill, New York, Chap. 9.Google Scholar
  8. Eyring, C.F. (1930). Reverberation time in dead rooms, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 1, 217–241.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kuttruff, H. (1973). “Room Acoustics.” Applied Science, London.Google Scholar
  10. Kuttruff, H. (1997). Sound in Enclosures, in “Encyclopedia of Acoustics,” vol. 3, ed. M.J. Crocker, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Pierce, A.D. (1981). “Acoustics.” McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  12. 276.
    Sound in Concert Halls and StudiosGoogle Scholar
  13. Reichardt, W., Abdel Alim, O., and Schmidt, W. (1975). Definition and basis of making an objective evaluation between useful and useless clarity defining musical performances, Acustica 32, 126–137.Google Scholar
  14. Rossing, T.D. (1982). Experiments with an impedance tube in the acoustics laboratory. Am. J. Phys. 50, 1137–1141.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Rossing, T.D., Moore, F.R., and Wheeler, P.A. (2002). “Science of Sound,” 3rd ed. Addison-Wesley, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  16. Sabine, W.C. (1922). “Collected Papers on Acoustics.” Reprinted by Peninsula Publishing, Los Altos, Ca. (1993).Google Scholar
  17. Schroeder, M.R. (1954). The statistical parameters of frequency curves of large rooms, Acustica 4, 594–600.Google Scholar
  18. Schroeder, M.R., Gottlob, D., and Siebrasse, K.F. (1974). Comparative study of European concert halls: Correlation of subjective preferences with geometric and acoustic parameters, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 56, 1195–1201.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Schroeder, M.R. (1975). Diffuse sound reflections by maximum-length sequence, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 57, 149–150.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Schroeder, M.R. (1986). “Number Theory in Science and Communication,” 2nd edn. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  21. West, J.E. (1966). Possible subjective significance of the ratio of height to width of concert halls, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 40, 1245.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Yokota, T., Sakamotos, S., and Tachibana, H. (2002). Visualization of sound propagation and scattering in rooms. Acoust. Sci. and Tech. 23, 40–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas D. Rossing
    • 1
  • Neville H. Fletcher
    • 2
  1. 1.Physics DepartmentNorthern Illinois UniversityDeKalbUSA
  2. 2.Department of Physical Sciences Research School of Physical Sciences and EngineeringAustralian National UniversityCanberraAustralia

Personalised recommendations