Artificial intelligence (AI) first appeared as a scientific field within the overall framework of cybernetics and has, perhaps, suffered from the excessive optimism of its early stages. It seemed then that impressive results in the simulation of brain function would be reached through an increase in computer power. It was expected that the main hypothesis of AI, that “thinking is manipulation with symbols by prescript algorithms,” would be confirmed (Kryukov, 1988) in the near future. This situation has been exacerbated by the usual practice of authors and publishers, who customarily publish successes but not failures, a practice that cannot give a realistic impression of the course of research.
KeywordsArtificial Neural Network Cellular Automaton Artificial Immune System Immune Network Learn Classifier System
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