Vertigo pp 83-98 | Cite as

Menière’s disease

  • Thomas Brandt


Menière first described this syndrome in 1861. It is characterised by fluctuating hearing loss, tinnitus, and prolonged but gradually decreasing attacks of vertigo and nystagmus, which may last several hours. This striking triad of symptoms made Menière’s disease the most popular and certainly over-diagnosed vertigo syndrome. Monosymptomatic cochlear or vestibular variants are also well known. About 6% of the patients will develop vestibular drop attacks, which generally abate spontaneously. Menière’s disease is the fourth most common cause of vertigo. It chiefly affects those between 30 and 50 years of age. The frequency of attacks is irregular, and there is a tendency to bilateral involvement in about 30–60% of patients. Spontaneous improvement can occur in a few years or even up to a decade after the onset of the condition.


Hearing Loss Endolymphatic Hydrops Vestibular Aqueduct Drop Attack Vertigo Attack 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alleman AM, Dornhoffer JL, Kaufman Arenberg I, Walker PD (1997) Demonstration of autoantibodies to the endolymphatic sac in Menière’s disease. Laryngoscope 107: 211–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Altmann F, Zechner G (1968) The pathology and pathogenesis of endolymphatic hydrops. New investigations. Arch Klin Exp Ohr- Nas-Kehlk-Heilk 192: 1–19Google Scholar
  3. Andrews JC, Honrubia V (1988) Vestibular function in experimental endolymphatic hydrops. Laryngoscope 98: 479–485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Angell-James J (1970) Erfahrungen bei der Behandlung der Menière’schen Krankheit mit Ultraschall. HNO 18: 202–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Aran J-M, Rarey KE, Hawkins JE (1984) Functional and morphological changes in experimental endolymphatic hydrops. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 97: 547–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arenberg IK, Morowitz WF, Shambaugh GE Jr (1970) The role of the endolymphatic sac in the pathogenesis of endolymphatic hydrops in man. Otolaryngol (Suppl) 275: 7–43Google Scholar
  7. Aw ST, Halmagyi GM, Curthoys IS, Todd MJ, Yavor RA (1994) Unilateral vestibular deafferentation causes permanent impairment of the human vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex in the pitch plane. Exp Brain Res 102: 121–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baloh RW, Jacobson K, Winder T (1990) Drop attacks in Menière’s syndrome. Ann Neurol 28: 384–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bance M, Mai M, Tomlinson D, Rutka J (1991) The changing direction of nystagmus in acute Menière’s disease: Pathophysiological implications. Laryngoscope 101: 197–201Google Scholar
  10. Basek M (1973) Ultrasound for Menière’s disease. Lateral canal versus round window approach. Arch Otolaryngol 97: 133–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beck C, Schmidt CL (1978) Ten years of experience with intratympanally applied streptomycin (gentamicin) in the therapy of morbus Ménière. Arch Otorhinolaryngol 221: 149–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beddoe GM (1977) Vertigo in children. Otol Clin North Am 10: 139–144Google Scholar
  13. Bergenius J, Ödkvist LM (1996) Transtympanic aminoglycoside treatment in Menière’s disease. In: Baloh RW, Halmagyi GM (eds) Disorders of the vestibular system. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 575–582Google Scholar
  14. Bernstein J (1965) Occurrence of episodic vertigo and hearing loss in families. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 74: 101–111Google Scholar
  15. Bertrand RA (1971) Modification of the vestibular function with betahistine HCI. Laryngoscope 81: 889–898PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Birgerson L, Gustayson K-H, Stahle J (1987) Familial Menière’s disease: a genetic investigation. Am J Otol 8: 323–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Black FO, Effron MZ, Burns DS (1982) Diagnosis in management of drop attacks of vestibular origin: Tumarkin’s otolithic crisis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 90: 256–262Google Scholar
  18. Brandt Th, Michele W (1983) Augenbewegungsstörungen. Fischer, Stuttgart, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Bretlau P, Thomsen J, Tos M, Johnsen NJ (1984) Placebo effect in surgery for Menière’s disease: a three-year follow-up study of patients in a double blind placebo controlled study on endolymphatic sac shunt surgery. Am J Otol 5: 558–561PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bretlau P, Thomsen J, Tos M, Johnsen NJ (1989) Placebo effect in surgery for Menière’s disease: nine year follow up. Am J Otol 10: 259–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Brookes GB, Morrison AW, Booth JB (1982) Acetazolamide in Menière’s disease–evaluation of a new diagnostic test for reversible endolymphatic hydrops. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 90: 358–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Brown DH, McClure JA, Dowar-Zapolski Z (1988) The membrane rupture theory of Meniere’s disease–is it valid? Laryngoscope 98: 599–601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Chüden HG (1978) Erfahrungsbericht über Betahistin–Anwendung bei Morbus Menière. Laryngol Rhinol 57: 997–1007Google Scholar
  24. Claes J, Van De Heyning PH (1997) Medical treatment of Menière’s disease: a review of literature. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) Suppl 526: 37–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cohen H, Ewell LR, Jenkins HA (1995) Disability in Menière’s disease. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 121: 29–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Coker NJ, Coker RR, Jenkins HA, Vincent KR (1989) Psychological profile of patients with Menière’s disease. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 115: 1355–1357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Derebery MJ, Rao S, Siglock TJ, Linthicum FH, Nelson RA (1991) Meniere’s disease: an immune complex-mediated illness? Laryngoscope 101: 225–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Dickins JRE, Graham SS (1990) Menière’s disease 1983–1989. Am J Otol 11: 51–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dohlman GF (1965) The mechanism of secretion and absorption of endolymph in the vestibular apparatus. Acta Otolaryngol 59: 275–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dohlman GF (1976) On the mechanism of the Menière attack. Arch Oto-Rhino-Laryngol 212: 301–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dornhoffer JL, Kaufman-Arenberg I (1993) Diagnosis of vestibular Menière’s disease with electrocochleography. Am J Otol 14: 161–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Driscoll CLW, Kasperbauer JL, Facer GW, Harner SG, Beatty CW (1997) Low-dose intratympanic gentamicin and the treatment of Meniere’s disease: Preliminary results. Laryngoscope 107: 83–89Google Scholar
  33. Duvall A, Stanti PA, Hukee MJ (1980) Cochlear fluid balance. A clinical research overview. Ann Otol (St Louis) 89: 335Google Scholar
  34. Ecke U, Begall K, Amedee RG, Norris CH, Mann WJ (1997) Selective chemical vestibulectomy. ORL 59: 209–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Egami T, Sando I, Black FO (1978) Hypoplasia of the vestibular aqueduct and endolymphatic sac in endolymphatic hydrops. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 86: 327–339Google Scholar
  36. Elwood S, Carlton J, Cliffe MJ (1982) A physiological contribution to the management of Menière’s disease. Practitioner 226: 1149–1152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Enander A, Stahle J (1967) Hearing in Menière’s disease. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 64: 543–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fisch U (1976) Die Chirurgische Behandlung des Morbus Menière. Arch Otorhinolaryngol 212: 385–391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fraysse B, Bebear JP, Dubreuil C, Berges C, Dauman R (1991) Betahistine dihydrochloride versus flunarizine. A double-blind study on recurrent vertigo with or without cochlear syndrome typical of Menière’s disease. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) Suppl 490: 1–10Google Scholar
  40. Friberg U, Stahle J, Svedberg A (1984) The natural course of Menière’s disease. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) Suppl 406: 72–77Google Scholar
  41. Furman JMR, Durrant JD, Hyre R, Kamerer DB (1990) Vestibular recruitment in Menière’s disease. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 99: 805–809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Futaki T, Yamane M, Kawabata I, Nomura Y (1984) Detection of delayed endolymphatic hydrops by the furosemide test. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) Suppl 406: 37–41Google Scholar
  43. Gibson WPR, Arenberg IK (1997) Pathophysiologic theories in the etiology of Menière’s disease. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 30: 961–967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Glasscock ME, Thedinger BA, Cueva RA, Jackson CG (1991) An analysis of the retrolabyrinthine vs the retrosigmoid vestibular nerve section. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 104: 88–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Graham MD, Goldsmith MM (1994) Labyrinthectomy. Indications and surgical technique. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 27: 325–335Google Scholar
  46. Groen JJ (1983) Psychosomatic aspects of Menière’s disease. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 95: 407–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hall SF, O’Connor AF, Thakkar CH, Wylie IG, Morrison AW (1983a) Significance of tomography in Menière’s disease: Visualization and morphology of the vestibular aqueduct. Laryngoscope 93: 1546–1549Google Scholar
  48. Hall SF, O’Connor AF, Thakkar CH, Wylie IG, Morrison AW (1983b) Significance of tomography in Menière’s disease: periaqueductal pneumatization. Laryngoscope 93: 1551–1553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hallpike CS, Cairns H (1983) Observations of the pathology of Menière’s syndrome. Proc R Soc Med 31: 1317–1336Google Scholar
  50. Halmagyi GM (1994) Vestibular insufficiency following unilateral vestibular deafferentation. Aust J Otolaryngol 1: 510–512Google Scholar
  51. Halmagyi GM, Fattore CM, Curthoys IS, Wade S (1994) Gentamicin vestibulotoxicity. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 111: 571–574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hausler R, Toupet M, Guidetti G, Basseres F, Montandon P (1987) Menière’s disease in children. Am J Otolaryngol 8: 187–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hawke M, Jahn AF (1987) Diseases of the ear. Clinical and pathological aspects. Gower, New York, LondonGoogle Scholar
  54. Heermann J (1993) Predominance of left ear in Menière’s disease, sudden deafness, inner ear damage, tinnitus and abnormally patent eustachian tube. Ear Nose Throat J 72: 205–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Hellström S, Ödkvist L (1994) Pharmacologic labyrinthectomy. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 27: 307–315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. House W (1975) Menière’s disease: management and theory. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 8: 515–535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Huang TS, Lin CC (1994) Endolymphatic sac ballooning surgery for Menière’s disease. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 103: 389–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Hulshof JH, Baarsma EA (1981) Follow-up vestibular examination in Menière’s disease. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 91: 397–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hutchin T, Cortopassi G (1994) Proposed molecular and cellular mechanism for aminoglycoside ototoxicity. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 38: 2517–2520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Imoto T, Stahle J (1983) The clinical picture of Menière’s disease in the light of glycerin and urea tests. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 95: 247–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ito M, Watanabe Y, Shojaku H, Kobayashi H, Aso S, Mizukoshi K (1993) Furosemide VOR test for the detection of endolymphatic hydrops. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) Suppl 504: 55–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Jansen VD, Russel RD (1988) Conservative management of Tumarkin’s otolithic crisis. J Otolaryngol 17: 359–361Google Scholar
  63. Jongkees LBW (1971) Some remarks on the patients suffering from Menière’s disease. Trans Am Acad Opthalmol Otolaryngol 75: 374–378Google Scholar
  64. Katsarkas A (1996) Hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction in Meniere’s disease. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 116: 185–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kaufmann-Arenberg I, Gibson WPR, Bohlen HKH (1988) Improvements in audiometric and electrophysiologic parameters following non-destructive inner ear surgery utilising a valved shunt for hydrops and Ménière’s disease. In: Nadol JB Jr (ed) Second International Symposium on Ménière’s disease. Kugler and Ghedini, Amsterdam, pp 545–561Google Scholar
  66. Kimura R (1967) Experimental blockade of the endolymphatic duct and sac and its effect on the inner ear of the guinea pig. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 76: 664–687PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kimura RS (1984) Fistulae in the membranous labyrinth. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 93: 36–43Google Scholar
  68. Kimura RS, Schuknecht HF, Ota CY, Jones DD (1980) Obliteration of the ductus reuniens. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 89: 295–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kitahara M (1991) Bilateral aspects of Menière’s disease. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) Suppl 485: 74–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kitamura K, Schuknecht HF, Kimura RS (1982) Cochlear hydrops in association with collapsed saccule and ductus reuniens. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 91: 5–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Klockhoff I, Lindblom U (1967) Glycerol test in Menière’s disease. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 224: 449–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Klockhoff I, Lindblom U, Stable J (1974) Diuretic treatment of Meniere’s disease: long term results with clorthalidone. Arch Otolaryngol 100: 262–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kohut RI, Hinojosa R, Budetti JA (1986) Perilymphatic fistula: A histopathological study. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 95: 446–471Google Scholar
  74. Kroese ABA, Das A, Hudspeth AJ (1989) Blockage of transduction channels of hair cells in bullfrog’s sacculus by aminoglycoside antibiotics. Hear Res 37: 203–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kubo T, Doi K, Koizuka I, Takeda N, Sugiyama N, Yamada K, Kohmura E, Hayakawa T (1995) Assessment of auditory and vestibular functions after vestibular neurectomy for Menière’s disease. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 115: 149–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kuhl W (1980) Vestibular-cerebral syncopes. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 105: 41–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lange G (1977) Die intratympanale Behandlung des Morbus Menière mit ototoxischen Antibiotika. Laryng Rhinol 56: 409–414Google Scholar
  78. Langman AW, Kemink JL, Graham MD (1990) Titration streptomycin therapy for bilateral Menière’s disease. Follow-up report. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 99: 923–926Google Scholar
  79. Laurikainen EA, Miller JM, Ouirk WS, Kallinen J, Ren T, Nuttall AL, Grenman R, Virolainen E (1993) Betahistine-induced vascular effects in the rat cochlea. Am J Otol 14: 24–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Le Père DM (1967) Evaluation of a new symptomatic treatment for Menière’s disease. Clin Med 74: 63–64Google Scholar
  81. Lehrer JF, Poole DC (1982) Onset and duration of positive responses to the glycerin test in patients with Menière’s disease. Am J Otolaryngol 3: 262–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lermoyez M (1919) Le vertigo qui fait entendre. Presse Med 27:1 Lundquist P-G (1976) Aspects of endolymphatic sac morphology and function. Arch Oto-Rhino-Laryngol 212: 231–240Google Scholar
  83. Magnusson M, Padoan S (1991) Delayed onset of ototoxic effects of gentamicin in treatment of Ménière’s disease. Acta Otolaryngol(Stockh)111: 671–676Google Scholar
  84. Marchbanks RJ (1984) Measurement of tympanic membrane displacement arising from aural cardiovascular activity, swallowing, and intra-aural muscle reflex. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 98: 119–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Menière P (1861) Mémoire sur les lésions de l’oreille interne donnant lieu a des symptomes de congestion cérébrale apoplectiforme. Gaz Med Paris, Sér 3, 16: 597–601Google Scholar
  86. Meyer ED (1985) Zur Behandlung des Morbus Menière mit Betahistindimesilat (Aequamen) Doppelblindstudie gegen Plazebo (crossover). Laryngol Rhinol Otol 64: 269–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Meyer zum Gottesberge A, Stupp H (1980) Menière’sche Krankheit. In: Zöllner F (ed) Hals-Nasen-Ohrenheilkunde in Praxis and Klinik Vol 6, Ohr II. Thieme, Stuttgart, pp 38.1–38. 31Google Scholar
  88. Meyerhoff WL, Paparella MM, Shea D (1978) Ménière’s disease in children. Laryngoscope 88: 1504–1511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Monsell EM, Brackmann DE, Linthicum FH Jr (1988) Why do vestibular destructive procedures sometimes fail? Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 99: 472–479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Morrison AW (1986) Predictive tests for Menière’s disease. Am J Otol 7: 5–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Morrison AW, Moffat DA, O’Connor AF (1980) Clinical usefulness of electrocochleography in Menière’s disease: an analysis of dehydrating agents. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 13: 703–721PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Mrowinski D, Scholz G, Krompass S, Nubel K (1996) Diagnosis of endolymphatic hydrops by low-frequency masking. Audiol Neurootol 1: 125–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Murofushi T, Halmagyi GM,Yavor RA (1997) Intratympanic gentamicin in Ménière’s disease: results of therapy. Am J Otol 18: 52–57Google Scholar
  94. Nadol JB (1977) Positive Hennebert’s sign in Menière’s disease. Arch Otolaryngol 103: 524–530PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Nadol JB Jr, Weiss AD, Parker SW (1975) Vertigo of delayed onset after sudden deafness. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 84: 841–846PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Naito T (1950) Experimental studies on Menière’s disease. Otorhinolaryngol Soc Jpn 53: 19–20Google Scholar
  97. Nedzelski JM, Chiong CM, Fradet G, Schessel DA, Bryce GE, Pfeiderer AG (1993) Intratympanic gentamicin instillation as treatment of unilateral Ménière’s disease: update of an ongoing study. Am J Otol 14: 278–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Nomura Y, Hara M, Funai H, Okuno T (1987) Endolymphatic hydrops in perilymphatic fistula. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 103: 469–476Google Scholar
  99. Ödkvist LM (1988) Middle ear ototoxic treatment for inner ear disease. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) Suppl 457: 83–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ödkvist LM, Bergenius 0 (1988) Drop attacks in Menière’s disease. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) Suppl 455: 82–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Ohyama Y, Yagi T, Ushio K, Suzuki K (1997) 3D analysis of nystagmus during peripheral vertiginous attacks. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) Suppl 528: 77–79Google Scholar
  102. Oliveira CA, Bezerra RL, Aradjo MF, Almeida VF, Messias CI (1997) Menière’s syndrome and migraine: incidence in one family. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 106: 823–829PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Oosterveld WJ (1984) Betahistine dihydrochloride in the treatment of vertigo of peripheral vestibular origin. A double-blind placebo-controlled study.] Laryngol Otol 98: 37–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Paparella MM, Griebie MS (1984) Bilaterality of Menière’s disease. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 97: 333–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Paparella MM, McDermott JC, de Sousa LCA (1982) Menière’s disease and the peak audiogram. Arch Otolaryngol 108: 555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Parker W (1995) Menière’s disease. Etiologic considerations. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 121: 377–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Parving A (1976) Menière’s disease in childhood. J Laryngol Otol 90: 817–821PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Pascher W (1967) Vestibulärer Anfallsschwindel and Bewußtseinsstörungen. Arch klin Exp Ohr-, Nas- Kehlk-Heilk 188: 384–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Peron DL, Kitamura K, Carniol PJ, Schuknecht HF (1983) Clinical and experimental results with focused ultrasound. Laryngoscope 93: 1217–1221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Petermann W, Mulch G (1982) Zur Langzeittherapie des Morbus Meniere. Betahistin-dihydrochlorid and Hydrochlorothiazid im Wirkungsvergleich. Fortschr Med 100: 431–435Google Scholar
  111. Pfaltz CR (1977) Pathophysiologische Aspekte and therapeutische Möglichkeiten beim Morbus Menière. Laryng Rhinol 56: 396–401Google Scholar
  112. Portman G (1927) The saccus endolymphaticus and an operation for draining the same for the relief of vertigo. J Laryngol 42: 809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Quaranta A, Marini F, Sallustio V (1998) Long-term outcome of Mèniére’s disease: endolymphatic mastoid shunt versus natural history. Audiol Neurootol 3: 54–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Rauch S (1968) Biochemical aspects of pathogenesis of Menière’s disease. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 1: 369–374Google Scholar
  115. Rauch SD, Merchant SN, Thedinger BA (1989) Menière’s syndrome and endolymphatic hydrops. Double-blind temporal bone study. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 98: 873–883Google Scholar
  116. Rosenberg S, Silverstein H, Flanzer J, Wanamaker H (1991) Bilateral Menière’s disease in surgical versus non-surgical patients. Am J Otol 12: 336–340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Ruckenstein MJ, Rutka JA, Hawke M (1991) The treatment of Menière’s disease: Torok revisited. Laryngoscope 101: 211–218Google Scholar
  118. Sadé J, Yaniv E (1984) Menière’s disease in infants. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 97: 33–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Sando I, Ikeda M (1984) The vestibular aqueduct in patients with Menière’s disease. A temporal bone histopathological investigation. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 97: 558–570Google Scholar
  120. Schmalbrock P, Dailiana T, Chakeres DW, Oehler MC, Welling DB, Williams PM, Roth L (1996) Submillimeter-resolution MR of the endolymphatic sac in healthy subjects and patients with Meniere’s disease. Am J Neuroradiol 17: 1707–1716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Schmidt CL (1977) Aktuelle medikamentöse Therapie beim Morbus Menière. Laryng Rhinol 56: 407–409Google Scholar
  122. Schmidt CL, Beck CHL (1980) Behandlung des Morbus Menière mit intratympanal appliziertem Gentamycin-Sulfat. Laryng Rhinol 59: 804–807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Schuknecht HF (1957) Ablation therapy in the management of Menière’s disease. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) Suppl 132: 1Google Scholar
  124. Schuknecht HF (1976) Pathophysiology of endolymphatic hydrops. Arch Oto-Rhino-Laryngol 212: 253–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Schuknecht HF (1977) Pathology of Menière’s disease as it relates to the sac and tack procedures. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 86: 677–682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Schuknecht HF (1978) Delayed endolymphatic hydrops. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 87: 743–748PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Schuknecht HF (1980) Mondini dysplasia. A clinical and pathological study. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl 65: 89Google Scholar
  128. Schuknecht HF (1984) The pathophysiology of Menière’s disease. Am J Otol 5: 526–527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Schuknecht HF (1985) Neurolabyrinthitis. Viral infections of the peripheral auditory and vestibular systems. In: Nomura Y (ed) Hearing loss and dizziness. Igaku-Shoin, Tokyo, pp 1–15Google Scholar
  130. Schuknecht HF (1992) Myths in neurootology. Am J Otol 13: 124–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Schuknecht HF, Gulya A] (1983) Endolymphatic hydrops. An overview and classification. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 92: 1–20Google Scholar
  132. Schuknecht HF, Bartley M (1985) Cochlear endolymphatic shunt for Menière’s disease. J Otol (Suppl): 20–22Google Scholar
  133. Schuknecht HF, Northrop C, Igarashi M (1968) Cochlear pathology after destruction of the endolymphatic sac in the cat. Acta Otolaryngol 65: 479–487PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Shinkawa H, Kimura RS (1986) Effect of diuretics on endolymphatic hydrops. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 101: 43–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Shojaku H, Watanabe Y (1997) The prevalence of definite cases of Meniere’s disease in the Hida and Nishikubiki districts of central Japan: A survey of relatively isolated areas of medical care. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) Suppl 528: 94–96Google Scholar
  136. Silverstein H (1970) The effects of perfusing the perilymphatic space with artificial endolymph. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 79: 754–765PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Silverstein H, Norrel H, Rosenberg S (1990) The resurrection of vestibular neurectomy: a 10-year experience with 115 cases. J Neurosurg 72: 533–539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Sjöberg A, Stahle J (1965) Treatment of Menière’s disease with ultrasound. Arch Otolaryngol 82: 498–502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Smith CA, Lowry OH, Wu M-L (1954) The electrolytes of the labyrinthine fluids. Laryngoscope 64: 141–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Snyder J (1974) Extensive use of a diagnostic test for Menière’s disease. Arch Otolaryngol 100: 360–365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Song BB, Schacht J (1996) Variable efficacy of radical scavengers and iron chelators to attenuate gentamicin ototoxicity. Hear Res 94: 87–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Song BB, Anderson DJ, Schacht J (1997) Protection from gentamicin ototoxicity by iron chelators in guinea pig in vivo. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 282: 369–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Stahle J (1976a) Advanced Menière’s disease. A study of 356 severely disabled patients. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 81: 113–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Stahle J (1976b) Ultrasound treatment of Menière’s disease. Longterm follow-up of 356 advanced cases. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 81: 120–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Stahle J, Stahle Ch, Arenberg IK (1978) Incidence of Menière’s disease. Arch Otolaryngol 104: 99–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Stupp H (1976) Die medikamentose Therapie der Menière’schen Krankheit. Arch Oto-Rhinolaryngol 212: 375–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Suga J, Snow JB (1969) Cochlear blood flow in response to vasodilating drugs and some related agents. Laryngoscope 79: 1956–1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Takeda T, Sawada S, Kakigi A, Saito H (1997) Computed radiographic measurement of the dimensions of the vestibular aqueduct in Meniere’s disease. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) Suppl 528: 80–84Google Scholar
  149. Tanioka H, Kaga K, Zusho H, Araki T, Sasaki Y (1997) MR of the endolymphatic duct and sac: Findings in Menière’s disease. Am J Neuroradiol 18: 45–51Google Scholar
  150. Tasaki I, Fernandez C (1952) Modification of cochlear micro-phonics and action potentials by KCL solution and by direct currents.] Neurophysiol 15: 497–512Google Scholar
  151. Telischi FF, Luxford WM (1993) Long-term efficacy of endolymphatic sac surgery for vertigo in Menière’s disease. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 109: 83–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Thomas K, Harrison MS (1971) Long-term follow-up of 610 cases of Menière’s disease. Proc R Soc Med 64: 853PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Thomson J, Bretlau P, Tos M, Johnson NJ (1981) Placebo effect in surgery for Menière’s disease. Arch Otolaryngol 107: 271–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Tonndorf J (1976) Endolymphatic hydrops: mechanical causes of hearing loss. Arch Oto-Rhino Laryngol 212: 293–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Tonndorf J (1983) Vestibular signs and symptoms in Menière’s disorder: Mechanical considerations. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 95: 421–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Torok N (1977) Old and new in Menière’s disease. Laryngoscope 87: 1870–1877PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Toshiaki Y, Yoshio O, Kayo S, Eriko K, Takayuki K (1997) 3D analysis of nystagmus in peripheral vertigo. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 117: 135–138Google Scholar
  158. Tran Ba Huy P (1984) Electrophysiological and biochemical findings in four cases of Menière’s disease. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 97: 571–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Tumarkin A (1936) The otolithic catastrophe: a new syndrome. Br Med J I: 175–177Google Scholar
  160. Unemoto H, Sasa M, Takaori S, Ito J, Matsuoka I (1982) Inhibitory effect of betahistine on polysynaptic neurons in the lateral vestibular nucleus. Arch Otolaryngol 236: 229–236Google Scholar
  161. Van de Heyning PH, Verlooy J, Schatteman I, Wuyts FL (1997) Selective vestibular neurectomy in Menière’s disease: A review. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) Suppl 526: 58–66Google Scholar
  162. Van Deelen GW, Huizing EH (1986) Use of a diuretic (dyazide) in the treatment of Meniere’s disease. A double-blind cross-over placebo-controlled study. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 48: 287–292Google Scholar
  163. Wang JJ, Dutia MB (1995) Effects of histamine and betahistine on rat medial vestibular nucleus neurones: possible mechanism of action of anti-histaminergic drugs in vertigo and motion sickness. Exp Brain Res 105: 18–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Watanabe I (1981) Menière’s disease in males and females. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 91: 511–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Welling DB, Clarkson MW, Miles BA, Schmalbrock P, Williams PM, Chakeres DW, Oehler MC (1996) Submillimeter magnetic resonance imaging of the temporal bone in Menière’s disease. Laryngoscope 106: 1359–1364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Wexler M, Crary WG (1986) Menière’s Disease: The psychosomatic hypothesis. Am J Otol 7: 93–96Google Scholar
  167. Wexler DB, Harker LA, Voots RJ, McCabe BF (1991) Monothermal differential caloric testing in patients with Menière’s disease. Laryngoscope 101: 50–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Williamson DG, Gifford F (1971) Psychosomatic aspects of Menière’s disease. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 72: 118–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Wolfson RJ, Leibermann A (1975) Unilateral deafness with subsequent vertigo. Laryngoscope 85: 1762–1766PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Yamakawa K (1938) Über die pathologische Veränderung bei einem Menière-Kranken. J Otorhinolaryngol Soc Jpn 4: 2310–2312Google Scholar
  171. Yamashita T, Schuknecht HF (1982) Apical endolymphatic hydrops. Arch Otolaryngol 108: 463–466PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Yamasoba T, Kikuchi S, Sugasawa M, Yagi M, Harada T (1994) Acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss without vertigo. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 120: 532–535PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Yamazaki T, Hayashi M, Komatsuzaki A (1991) Intratympanic gentamicin therapy for Menière’s disease placed by a tubal catheter with systematic isosorbide. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) Supp1481: 613–616Google Scholar
  174. Yazawa Y, Kitahara M (1990) Bilateral endolymphatic hydrops in Menière’s disease: review of temporal bone autopsies. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 99: 524–528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Yazawa Y, Kitahara M (1994) Computerized tomography of the petrous bone in Menière’s disease. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) Suppl 510: 67–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Zechner G (1976) Pathohistologie des Ductus and Saccus endolymphaticus beim Innenohrhydrops. Arch Otorhinolaryngol 212: 277–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Zechner G (1980) Innenohrhydrops als Folge gestörter Endolymphzirkulation. Laryng Rhinol 59: 829–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Zucca G, Botta L, Mira E, Manfrin M, Poletti A, Buizza A, Valli P (1991) Effects of hydrostatic pressure on sensory discharge in frog semicircular canals. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 111: 820–826CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Brandt
    • 1
  1. 1.Neurologische Klinik, Klinikum GroßhadernLudwig-Maximillians-UniversitätMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations