Average Level Crossing Rate and Average Fade Duration of Diversity Methods

  • Xiaofei Dong
  • Norman C. Beaulieu
Part of the The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science book series (SECS, volume 712)


The analytical expressions of average level crossing rate (LCR) and average fade duration (AFD) of the output signal of a diversity combiner are presented in this paper. Exact, closed-form results are obtained for maximal ratio combining (MRC) diversity operating on independent and identical Ricean fading branches, while accurate approximations for equal gain combining (EGC) diversity are presented with an infinite series method. Exact expressions for MRC diversity combined non-identical Rayleigh fading signals are derived for diversity orders of two, three and four. Also, the simple closed-form results of these two quantities for selection diversity in generalized fading with non-identical branch powers are obtained. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, these results are new.


Probability Density Function Network Security Maximal Ratio Combine Fading Model Joint Probability Density Function 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaofei Dong
    • 1
  • Norman C. Beaulieu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

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