Congestion is an important indicator of routability in placement, and it has become dominant for large, tight designs. Previous works addressed the congestion problem using various methods. Mayrhofer and Lauther  combine congestion function in cut minimization. Cheng  employs a congestion model in simulated annealing approach. Wang et. al  propose a post-processing step to remove congestion for a wirelength optimized placement. These methods attempt to reduce congestion by obtaining a placement with less gathered wires and are successful for improving routability.
KeywordsSimulated Annealing White Space Allocation Approach Placement Process Placement Flow
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- 1.The reason of bounding white space in rows will be discussed in Section 6.2Google Scholar