Particulate Measurement Methods

  • Gregory J. Smallwood
  • William D. Bachalo
  • Subramanian V. Sankar


The presence of soot is essential in some processes: it is the product in carbon black; it provides the source of light radiation in pyrotechnic and pyrophoric flares; and is the dominant source of radiant heat transfer in boilers and furnaces. However, it is also an undesirable product in many combustion processes where it is expelled with the exhaust, contributing to air pollution. The focus of this chapter is on measurement of the unwanted particulates, primarily from diesel, gasoline, and gas turbine engines, although the techniques described in most cases are equally effective in measuring soot in flames and from non-engine sources.


Diesel Engine Primary Particle Soot Particle Primary Particle Size Soot Volume Fraction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    C. Arden, R.T. Burnett, M.J. Thun, E.E. Calle, D. Krewski, K. Ito, and G. D. Thurston, “Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution,” Journal of the American Medical Association 287, 1132–1141 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Reto, A. Lacis, and V. Oinas, “Global warming in the twenty-first century: An alternative scenario,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97, 9875–9880 (2000).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M.Z. Jacobson, “Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols,” Nature 409, 695–697 (2001).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    D.B. Kittelson, “Engines and nanoparticles: A review,” Journal of Aerosol Science 29, 575–588 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    P.O. Witze, “Diagnostics for the measurement of particulate matter emissions from reciprocating engines,” The Fifth International Symposium on Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines (COMODIA), Nagoya, 2001.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    SJ. Harris and M.M. Maricq, “Signature size distributions for diesel and gasoline engine particulate matter,” Journal of Aerosol Science 32, 749–764 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    GJ. Smallwood, D. Clavel, D. Gareau, R.A. Sawchuk, D.R. Snelling, P.O. Witze, B. Axelsson, W.D. Bachalo, and Ö.L. Guider, “Concurrent quantitative laser-induced incandescence and SMPS measurements of EGR effects on particulate emissions from a TDI diesel engine,” SAE Paper No. 2002–01–2715 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    H. Zhao and N. Ladommatos, “Optical diagnostics for soot and temperaturemeasurement in diesel engines,” Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 24, 221–255 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    D.R. Snelling, G.J. Smallwood, R.A. Sawchuk, W.S. Neill, D. Gareau, W.L. Chippior, F. Liu, Ö.L. Güider, and W.D. Bachalo, “Particulate matter measurements in a diesel engine exhaust by laser-induced incandescence and the standard gravimetric procedure,” SAE Paper No. 1999–01–3653 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    D.R. Snelling, G.J. Smallwood, Ö.L. Güider, W.D. Bachalo, and S. Sankar, “Soot volume fraction characterization using the laser-induced incandescence detection method,” Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, July 10–13, 2000.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A.C. Eckbreth, “Effects of laser-modulated particulate incandescence on Raman scattering diagnostics,” Journal of Applied Physics 48, 4473–4479 (1977).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    T. Ni, J.A. Pinson, S. Gupta, and R.J. Santoro, “Two-dimensional imaging of soot volume fraction by the use of laser-induced incandescence,” Applied Optics 34, 7083–7091 (1995).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. Huit, A. Omrane, J. Nygren, CF. Kaminski, B. Axelsson, R. Collin, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, “Quantitative three-dimensional imaging of soot volume fraction in turbulent non-premixed flames,” Experiments in Fluids 33, 265–269 (2002).ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    K. Kohse-Höinghaus and J.B. Jeffries, eds., Applied combustion diagnostics, Taylor and Francis, New York (2002).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    L.A. Melton, “Soot diagnostics based on laser heating,” Applied Optics 23, 2201–2208 (1984).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    C.J. Dasch, “New soot diagnostics in flames based on laser vaporization of soot,” Proceedings of the Twentieth Symposium (International) on Combustion, 1231–1237 (1984).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    N.P. Tait and D.A. Greenhalgh, “PLIF imaging of fuel fraction in practical devices and LI1 imaging of soot,” Berichte der Bunsengesellschaft fuer Physikalische Chemie 97, 1619–1625 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    D.L. Hofeldt, “Real-time soot concentration measurement technique for engine exhaust streams,” SAE Paper No. 930079 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    B. Mewes and J.M. Seitzman, “Soot volume fraction and particle size measurements with laser-induced incandescence,” Applied Optics 36, 709–717 (1997).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    D.R. Snelling, G.J. Smallwood, I.G. Campbell, J.E. Medlock, and Ö.L. Güider, “Development and application of laser-induced incandescence (LU) as a diagnostic for soot particulate measurements,” Advanced Non-Intrusive Instrumentation for Propulsion Engines AGARD Conference Proceedings 598, 23.21–23.29 (1997).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    K.R. McManus, J.H. Frank, M.G. Allen, and W.T. Rawlins, “Characterization of laser-heated soot particles using optical pyrometry,” AIAA Paper No. 98–0159 (1998).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    S. Will, S. Schraml, K. Bader, and A. Leipertz, “Performance characteristics of soot primary particle size measurements by time-resolved laser-induced incandescence,” Applied Optics 37, 5647–5658 (1998).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    D.R. Snelling, F. Liu, G.J. Smallwood, and Ö.L. Guider, “Evaluation of the nanoscale heat and mass transfer model of the laser-induced incandescence: Prediction of the excitation intensity,” Thirty Fourth National Heat Transfer Conference Paper No. NHTC2000–12132(2000).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    S. Schraml, S. Dankers, K. Bader, S. Will, and A. Leipertz, “Soot temperature measurements and implications for time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TIRE-LII),” Combustion and Flame 120, 439–450 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    R.A. Dobbins and CM. Megaridis, “Morphology of flame-generated soot as determined by thermophoretic sampling,” Langmuir 3, 254–259 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    W.H. Dalzell and A.F. Sarofim, “Optical constants of soot and their application to heat flux calculations,” Journal of Heat Transfer 91, 100–104 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    O. Leroy, J. Perrin, J. Jolly, and M. Pealat, “Thermal accommodation of a gas on a surface and heat transfer in CVD and PECVD experiments,” Journal of Physics D 30, 499–509 (1997).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    G.J. Smallwood, D.R. Snelling, F. Liu, and Ö.L. Güider, “Clouds over soot evaporation: Errors in modeling laser-induced incandescence of soot,” Journal of Heat Transfer 123, 814–818 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    R.L. Vander Wal and K.J. Weiland, “Laser-induced incandescence: Development and characterization towards a measurement of soot-volume fraction,” Applied Physics B 59, 445–452 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    C.R. Shaddix and K.C. Smyth, “Laser-induced incandescence measurements of soot production in steady and flickering methane, propane, and ethylene diffusion flames,” Combustion and Flame 107, 418–452 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    P.O. Witze, S. Hochgreb, D. Kayes, H.A. Michelsen, and C.R. Shaddix, “Time-resolved laser-induced incandescence and laser elastic scattering measurements in a propane diffusion flame,” Applied Optics 40, 2443–2452 (2001).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    C.J. Dasch, “One-dimensional tomography: A comparison of abel, onion-peeling, and filtered backprojection methods.,” Applied Optics 31, 1146–1152 (1992).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    D.R. Snelling, K.A. Thomson, G.J. Smallwood, and Ö.L. Guider, “Two-dimensional imaging of soot volume fraction in laminar diffusion flames,” Applied Optics 38, 2478–2485 (1999).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    B. Quay, T.-W. Lee, T. Ni, and R.J. Santoro, “Spatially resolved measurements of soot volume fraction using laser-induced incandescence,” Combustion and Flame 97, 384–392 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    R.L. Vander Wal, Z. Zhou, and M.Y. Choi, “Laser-induced incandescence calibration via gravimetric sampling,” Combustion and Flame 105, 462–470 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    S. Schraml, S. Will, and A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous measurement of soot mass concentration and primary particle size in the exhaust of a DI diesel engine by time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TIRE-LII),” SAE Paper No. 1999–01–0146 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    S. Schraml, S. Will, A. Leipertz, T. Zens, and N. D’Alfonso, “Performance characteristics of TIRE-LII soot diagnostics in exhaust gases of diesel engines,” SAE Paper No. 2000–01–2002 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    S. Schraml, C. Heimgärtner, S. Will, A. Leipertz, and A. Hemm, “Application of a new soot sensor for exhaust emission control based on time resolved laser induced incandescence (TIRE-LII),” SAE Paper No. 2000–01–2864 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    B.J. McCoy and C.Y. Cha, “Transport phenomena in the rarefied gas transition regime,” Chemical Engineering Science 29, 381–388 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    R.L. Vander Wal, T.M. Ticich, and A.B. Stephens, “Optical and microscopy investigations of soot structure alterations by laser-induced incandescence,” Applied Physics B 67, 115–123 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    D.R. Snelling, G.J. Smallwood, and Ö.L. Güider, “Absolute light intensity measurements in laser-induced incandescence,” US Patent No. 6,154,277 (2000).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    D.R. Snelling, G.J. Smallwood, Ö.L. Güider, F. Liu, and W.D. Bachalo, “A calibration-independent technique of measuring soot by laser-induced in-candescence using absolute light intensity,” The Second Joint Meeting of the US Sections of the Combustion Institute, Oakland, California, March 25–28, 2001.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    G.J. Smallwood, B.J. Stagg, and W.D. Bachalo, “Investigation of LII for online measurement of nanoparticle surface area in a carbon black reactor,” Twenty-Ninth Symposium (International) on Combustion, WIP 3–1411, Sapporo, Japan, July 21–26, 2002.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    S.S. Krishnan, K.-C. Lin, and G.M. Faeth, “Extinction and scattering properties of soot emitted from buoyant turbulent diffusion flames,” Journal of Heat Transfer 123, 331–339 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    D.R. Snelling, K.A. Thomson, GJ. Smallwood, Ö.L. Güider, E.J. Weckman, and R.A. Fraser, “Spectrally resolved measurement of flame radiation to determine soot temperature and concentration,” AIAA Journal 40, 1789–1795 (2002).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    D.R. Snelling, F. Liu, G.J. Smallwood, and Ö.L. Güider, “Determination of the soot absorption function and accommodation coefficient using low-fluence LII,” Twenty-Ninth Symposium (International) on Combustion, WIP 3–1354, Sapporo, Japan, July 2126, 2002.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    M.E. Case and D.L. Hofeldt, “Soot mass concentration measurements in diesel engine exhaust using laser-induced incandescence,” Aerosol Science and Technology 25, 46–60 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    G.J. Smallwood, D.R. Snelling, W.S. Neill, F. Liu, W.D. Bachalo, and Ö.L. Güider, “Laser-induced incandescence measurements of particulate matter emissions in the exhaust of a diesel engine,” Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines (COMODIA), Nagoya, 2001.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    W.S. Neill, G.J. Smallwood, D.R. Snelling, R.A. Sawchuk, D. Clavel, D. Gareau, and W.L. Chippior, “Effect of EGR on heavy-duty diesel engine emissions characterized with laser-induced incandescence,” ASME-ICED 2002 Fall Technical Conference, New Orleans, Sept. 8–11,2002.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    G.J. Smallwood, D.R. Snelling, Ö.L. Guider, D. Clavel, D. Gareau, R.A. Sawchuk, and L. Graham, “Transient particulate matter measurements from the exhaust of a direct injection spark ignition automobile,” SAE Paper No. 2001–01–3581 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    K. Schäfer, J. Heland, D.H. Lister, C.W. Wilson, RJ. Howes, R.S. Falk, E. Lindermeir, M. Birk, G. Wagner, P. Haschberger, M. Bernard, O. Legras, P. Wiesen, R. Kurtenbach, K.J. Brockmann, V. Kriesche, M. Hilton, G. Bishop, R. Clarke, J. Workman, M. Caola, R. Geatches, R. Burrows, J.D. Black, P. Hervé, and J. Vally, “Nonintrusive optical measurements of aircraft engine exhaust emissions and comparison with standard intrusive techniques,” Applied Optics 39, 441–454 (2000).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    M.G. Allen, B.L. Upschulte, D.M. Sonnenfroh, W.T. Rawlins, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, A. Hutchinson, D. Sivco, and A. Cho, “Infrared characterization of particulate and pollutant emissions from gas turbine combustors,” AIAA Paper No. 2001–0789 (2001).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    T.P. Jenkins, J.L. Bartholomew, P.A. DeBarber, P. Yang, J.M. Seitzman, and R.P. Howard, “Laser induced incandescence for soot concentration measurements in turbine engine exhausts,” AIAA Paper No. 2002–0828 (2002).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    P.O. Witze, “High-energy, pulsed laser diagnostics for real-time measurements of reciprocating engine PM emissions,” 8th Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction Conference, San Diego, August 25–29, 2002.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ü.Ö. Köylü, “Quantitative analysis of in situ optical diagnostics for inferring particle/aggregate parameters in flames: Implications for soot surface growth and total emissivity,” Combustion and Flame 109, 488–500 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    P.O. Witze, “Real-time measurement of the volatile fraction of diesel particulate matter using laser-induced desorption with elastic light scattering (LIDELS),” SAE Paper No. 2002–01–1685 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    R.L. Vander Wal, T.M. Ticich, and J.R. West, “Trace metal detection by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Applied Spectroscopy 53, 1226–1236 (1999).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    M.-D. Cheng, “Real-time measurement of trace metals on fine particles by laser-induced plasma techniques,” Fuel Processing Technology 65/66, 219–229 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    C.B. Stipe, B.S. Higgins, D. Lucas, C.P. Koshland, and R.F. Sawyer, “Soot detection using excimer laser fragmentation fluorescence spectroscopy,” Twenty-Ninth Symposium (International) on Combustion, Sapporo, Japan, July 21–26, 2002.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    J.P. Hessler, S. Seifert, and R.E. Winans, “Spatially-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering studies of soot inception and growth,” Twenty-Ninth Symposium (International) on Combustion, Sapporo, Japan, July 21–26, 2002.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    H. Wang, B. Zhao, B. Wyslouzil, and K. Streletzky, “Small-angle neutron scattering of soot formed in laminar premixed ethylene flames,” Twenty-Ninth Symposium (International) on Combustion, Sapporo, Japan, July 21–26, 2002.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gregory J. Smallwood
    • 1
  • William D. Bachalo
    • 2
  • Subramanian V. Sankar
    • 2
  1. 1.National Research CouncilCanada
  2. 2.Artium Technologies, Inc.USA

Personalised recommendations