Digital Particle Image Velocimetry

  • Mark P. Wernet


Development of aerospace airframes and propulsion systems depends on the accurate simulation of these components in their normal operating environment. Measurement of velocity fields is of critical importance in these aerodynamic studies in order to both verify the external flow field and also to determine the performance of these components/systems in the flow field. Quantitative flow field measurements were initially obtained in aerodynamic studies using Pitot static probes, which were suitable for measuring the time-average or low frequency response flow field properties at a single point in the flow.1 Hot wire anemometry proved to be a significant improvement over pitot probes by providing high frequency response velocity measurements.1 Adding more wires enabled multi-component flow measurements. By their design, hot wires are very fragile and easily damaged by foreign objects or particles in the flow. While able to provide continuous records of flow fluctuations, hot wire anemometers only perform reliably in low turbulence flows. Similar to pitot probes, hot wire anemometers were invasive and disturbed the flow field under study. The first non-invasive point velocity measurement technique was Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), which used a crossed pair of laser beams to measure the velocity of seed particles entrained in the flow.1


Particle Image Velocimetry Particle Image Particle Tracking Light Sheet Seed Particle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Goldstein, R.J., Fluid Mechanics Measurements, Hemisphere Publishing Corp., Washington, 1983.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adrian, R.J., “Multi-Point Optical Measurements of Simultaneous Vectors in Unsteady Flow - A Review”, Int. J. of Heat and Fluid Flow, Vol. 7, pp. 127–145, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wernet, M.P., “Particle Displacement Tracking Applied to Air Flows”, Fourth International Conference on Laser Anemometry, Cleveland, OH, pp 327–335, August 5–9, 1991.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Basset, A.B., Treatise on Hydrodynamics, Vol. II (London: Deighton, Bell & Co.), 1988.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Melling, A., “Tracer Particles and Seeding for Particle Image Velocimetry”, Measurement Science and Technology, Vol. 8, pp l406–1416,1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Van de Hulst, H.C., Light Scattering by Small Particles, Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1981.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Agarwal, J.K. and Johnson, E., “ Generating Aerosols for LV Seeding” TSI Incorporated, TSI Quarterly, July/Sept 1981.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wernet, J.H. and Wernet, M.P., “ Stabilized Alumina/Ethanol Colloidal Dispersion for Seeding High Temperature Air Flows” , Proceedings of the ASME Symposium on Laser Anemometry: Advances and Applications, Lake Tahoe, NV, June 19–23, 1994.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Adrian, R.J., Yao, C.S., “ Pulsed laser technique application to liquid and gaseous flows and the scattering power of seed materials” , Applied Optics, 1985.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wernet, M.P., Pline, A., “ Particle Displacement Tracking Technique and Cramer-Rao Lower Bound Error in Centroid Estimates From CCD Imagery” , Experiments in Fluids, Vol. 15,295–307,1993.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Westerweel, J., “ Fundamentals of Digital Particle Image Velocimetry” , Meas. Sci. Technol., Vol. 8, pp. 1379–1392, 1997.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Landreth, C.C., Adrian, R.J., Yao, CS., “ Double pulsed particle image velocimeter with directional resolution for complex flows” , Experiments in Fluids, 6, pp. 119–128, 1988.ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bryanston-Cross, P.J., Towers, C.E., Judge, T.R., Towers, D.P., Harasgama, S.P., Hopwood, ST., 1992 “ The Application of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in a Short-Duration Transonic Annular Turbine Cascade” , ASME J. of Turbomachinery, Vol. 114, pp. 504–509, April.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wernet, M.P., “ Fuzzy Inference Enhanced Information Recovery from Digital PIV Using Cross-Correlation Combined with Particle Tracking” , SPIE Conference on Optical Diagnostics in Fluid and Thermal Flow, Vol. 2546, San Diego, CA, July 9–14, 1995.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wernet, M.P., “ Fuzzy Logic Particle-Tracking Velocimetry” , SPIE Conference on Optical Diagnostics in Fluid and Thermal Flow, Vol. 2005, San Diego, CA, pp 701–708, July 14–16,1993.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wernet, M.P., “ Fuzzy Logic Enhanced Digital PIV Processing Software,” Proceedings of 18th International Congress on Instrumentation for Aerospace Simulation Facilities, Toulouse, France, June, 1999.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cenedese, A., Paglialunga, A., Romano, G.P., Terlizzi, M., “ Neural Net for Trajectories Recognition in a Flow” , Sixth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, July 20–23, pp. 27.1, 1992.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Grant, I., “ Particle Imaging Velocimetry: a Review” , Proc. Instn Mech Engrs, Vol. 211, Part C, pp. 55–76, 1997.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Keane, R.D., Adrian, R.J. and Zhang, Y., “ Super-Resolution Particle Imaging Velocimetry” , Meas. Sci. Technol., 6, pp. 754–768, 1995.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lourenco, L.M. and Krothapalli, A., “ Mesh-Free, Second Order Accurate Algorithm for PIV” , Proceedings of the International Conference on Optical Technology and Image Processing in Fluid, Thermal and Combustion Flow, Paper AB079, Yokohama, Japan, 1998.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Taylor, J.R., An Introduction to Error Analysis, University Science Books, Oxford University Press, Mill Valley, CA, 1982.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Adamczyk, A.A., and Rimai, L., “ Reconstruction of a 3-Dimensional Flow Field From Orthogonal Views of Seed Track Video Images” , Experiments in Fluids, 6, pp. 380–386, 1988.ADSGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kobayashi, T., Saga, T., Sekimoto, K., “ Velocity Measurement of Three-Dimensional Flow Around Rotating Parallel Disks by Digital Image Processing” , FED-Vol. 85, Flow Visualization, pp. 29–36, December 10–15, 1989.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Okamoto, K., Hassan, Y.A., Schmidl, W.D., “ Simple Calibration Technique Using Image Cross-Correlation For Three Dimensional PIV” , FED-Vol. 209, Flow Visualization and Image Processing of Multiphase Systems, pp. 99–106, 1995.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hinsch, K.D., “ Three-Dimensional Particle Velocimetry” , Meas. Sci. Technol., 6, pp. 742–753, 1995.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Barnhart, D.H., Adrian, R.J., Papen, G.C., “ Phase-Conjugate Holographic System for High Resolution Particle Image Velocimetry” , Appl. Opt., Vol 33, No. 30, pp. 7159–7170, 1994.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Grant, I., Fu, S., Pan, X., Wang, X., “ The Application of an In-Line, Stereoscopic, PIV System to 3-Component Velocity Measurements” , Experiments in Fluids, 19, pp. 214–221, 1995.ADSGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gauthier, V. and Riethmuller, M.L., “ Particle Image Velocimetry” , von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics Lecture Series 1988–06, N89–17179, March 21–25, 1988.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Arroyo, M.P. and Greated, CA., “ Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry” , Meas. Sci. Technol., 2, pp. 1181–1186, 1991.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Prasad, A.K. and Adrian, R.J., “ Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry Applied to Liquid Flows” , Sixth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, July 20–23, pp. 6.1.1–6.1.8, 1992.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kingslake, R., Optics in Photography, SPIE Optical Engineering Press, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Funes-Gallanzi, M. and Bryanston-Cross, P.J., “ Solid State Visualization of a Highly Three Dimensional Flow Using Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (3DPIV)” , SPIE Conference on Optical Diagnostics in Fluid and Thermal Flow, Vol. 2005, San Diego, CA, pp. 360–369, July 14–16, 1993.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Westerweel, J. and Nieuwstadt, F.T.M., “ Performance Tests on 3-Dimensional Velocity Measurements with a Two-Camera Digital Particle-Image Velocimeter” , Fourth International Conference on Laser Anemometry, Cleveland, OH, pp. 349–355, August 5–9, 1991.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Stephany, J.F. and Haas, W.E., “ Keystone Compensation for Image Storage Systems” , Appl. Optics, Vol. 15, No. 6, pp. 1626–28, 1976.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wernet, M.P., “ Stereo Viewing 3-Component, Planar PIV Utilizing Fuzzy Inference” , AIAA-96–2268, June 17–20, 1996.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Raffel, M., Willert, C, Kompenhans, J., 1998, Particle Image Velocimetry, A Practical Guide, Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wernet, M.P., “A Flow Field Investigation in the Diffuser Region of a High Speed Centrifugal Compressor Using Digital Particle Image Velocimetry” , Meas Sci & Tech 11, pp. 1007–1022,2000.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wernet, M.P., “ Application of Digital Particle Imaging Velocimetry to Turbomachinery” , AGARD Lecture Series on Planar Optical Measurement Methods for Gas Turbine Components, AVT Panel, Cranfield, England and Cleveland, OH, 1999.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wernet, M.P. and Bridges, J., “ Application of DPIV to Enhanced Mixing Heated Nozzle Flows” , AIAA-2002–0691, Aerospace Science Meeting, Reno, NV, January, 2002.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    John, W.T., Paxson, D., Wernet, M.P., “ Conditionally Sampled Pulsejet Driven Ejector Flow Using DPIV” , AIAA-2002–3231, Aerodynamic Measurement Technology & Ground Test Conference, St. Louis, MO, June, 2002.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Paxson, D.E., Wilson, J., and Dougherty, K., “ Unsteady Ejector Performance: An Experimental Investigation Using a Pulsejet Driver,” AIAA paper 2002–3915, July, 2002.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Subramanian, A., Mu, H., Kadambi, J.R., Wernet, M.P., Brendzel, A.M., Harasaki, H., “ PIV Investigation of Intra-Valvular Flow Fields of a Bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valve in a Pulsatile Flow,” Journal of Heart Valve Disease, September 2000.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark P. Wernet
    • 1
  1. 1.National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Glenn Research CenterUSA

Personalised recommendations