Primate Survival in Community-Owned Forest Fragments: Are Metapopulation Models Useful Amidst Intensive use?

  • Colin A. Chapman
  • Michael J. Lawes
  • Lisa Naughton-Treves
  • Thomas Gillespie


Human modification of ecosystems is threatening biodiversity on a global scale (Cowlishaw, 1999; Cowlishaw and Dunbar, 2000; Chapman and Peres, 2001). A recent Food and Agriculture Organization report (FAO, 1999) indicates that tropical countries are losing 127,300 km2 of forest annually, and this does not consider the vast area being selectively logged (approximately 55,000 km2; FAO, 1990). The extent of tropical forests burning each year is highly variable and difficult to measure precisely (FAO, 1999; Nepstad et al., 1999), however, the forests of Southeast Asia (Kinnaird and O’Brien, 1999) and the Brazilian Amazon (Nepstad et al., 1999) are especially impacted by the combination of droughts from El Nino and burning for agriculture (FAO, 1999). In 1997 and 1998 an area of 2 million ha of forest burned in Brazil and 4 million ha burned in Indonesia (FAO, 1999).


Primate Species Forest Fragment Crater Lake Fragmented Landscape Fuel Wood 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bradley, P. N., 1991, Women, Woodfuel, and Woodlots, Macmillan Ltd., London.Google Scholar
  2. Chapman, C. A., Chapman, L. J., Wrangham, R., Isabirye-Basuta, G., and Ben-David, K., 1997, Spatial and temporal variability in the structure of a tropical forest, Afr. J. Ecol 35: 287–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chapman, C. A., and Lambert, J. E., 2000, Habitat alteration and the conservation of African primates: A case study of Kibale National Park, Uganda, Ant J. Primatol 50: 169–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chapman, C. A., and Onderdonk, D. A., 1998, Forests without primates: Primate/plant codependency, Am. J. Primatol 45: 127–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chapman, C. A., and Peres, C., 2001, Primate conservation in the new millennium: The role of scientists, Evol. Anthro 10: 16–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chapman, L. J., Chapman, C. A., Crisman, T. L., and Nordlie, F. G., 1998, Dissolved oxygen and thermal regimes of a Ugandan crater lake, Hydrobiol. 385: 201–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cowlishaw, G., 1999, Predicting the decline of African primate biodiversity: An extinction debt from historical deforestation, Cons. Biol 13: 1,183–1,193.Google Scholar
  8. Cowlishaw, G., and Dunbar, R., 2000, Primate Conservation Biology, University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Estrada, A., and Coates-Estrada, R., 1996, Tropical rainforest fragmentation and wild populations of primates at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico, Int. J. Primatol 17: 759–783.Google Scholar
  9. Fairgrieve, C., 1995, The comparative ecology of blue monkeys (Cercopithecus minis stuhlnnanni) in logged and unlogged forest, Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda: The effects of logging on habitat and population density, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland.Google Scholar
  10. FAO, 1990, Forest resources assessment 1990-Tropical countries, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Forestry Paper 112, Rome.Google Scholar
  11. FAO, 1999, State of the world’s forests, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. Government of Uganda, 1992, 1991 national housing and rural settlement census, Kampala, Uganda.Google Scholar
  12. Hamilton, A. C., 1974, Distribution patterns of forest trees in Uganda and their historical significance, Vegetation 29: 218–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hamilton, A. C., 1984, Deforestation in Uganda, Oxford University Press, Nairobi.Google Scholar
  14. Hanski, I., 1994, Patch-occupancy dynamics in fragmented landscapes, TREE 9: 131–135.Google Scholar
  15. Hanski, I., and Gilpin, M. E., 1997, Metapopulation Biology: Ecology, Genetics, and Evolution, Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  16. Harrison, S., Murphy, D. D., and Ehrlich, P. R., 1988, Distribution of bay checkerspot butterfly, Euphydryas editha bayensis: Evidence for metapopulation model, Am. Nat 132: 360–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Howard, P. C., 1991, Nature Conservation in Uganda’s Tropical Forest Reserves, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Kaipiriri, M., 1997, Local use of non-timber forest products at Kibale Forest, Uganda, Master’s Thesis, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.Google Scholar
  18. Kaminen, D., 1995, Cookstoves for the developing world, Sci. Amer 273: 64–67.Google Scholar
  19. Kinnaird, M. F., and O’Brien, T. O., 1999, Ecological effects of wildfire on lowland rainforest in Sumatra, Con. Biol 12: 954–956.Google Scholar
  20. Laurance, W. F., and Bierregaard, R. O., Jr., 1997, Tropical Forest Remnants: Ecology, Management, and Conservation of Fragmented Communities, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  21. Lawes, M. J., Mealin, P. E., and Piper, S. E., 2000, Patch occupancy and potential metapopulation dynamics of three forest mammals in fragmented afromontane forest in South Africa, Con. Biol 14: 1,088–1,098.Google Scholar
  22. Lovejoy, T. E., Bierregaard, R. O., Jr., Rylands, A. B., Malcolm, J. R., Quintela, C. E., Harper, L. J., Brown, K. S., Powell, A. H Powell, G. V. N., Schubart, H. O. R., and Hays, M. B., 1986, Edge and other effects of isolation on Amazon forest fragments, in: Conservation Biology: The Science of Scarcity and Diversity,M. E. Soulé, ed., Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, pp. 257–285.Google Scholar
  23. MFEP, 1992, Population and housing census report, Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning, Government of Uganda, Kampala, Uganda.Google Scholar
  24. Naughton-Treves, L., 1997, Farming the forest edge: Vulnerable places and people around Kibale National Park, Uganda, The Geographical Review 87: 27–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Naughton-Treves, L., 1998, Predicting patterns of crop damage by wildlife around Kibale National Park, Uganda, Con. Biol 12: 156–168.Google Scholar
  26. Naughton-Treves, L., 1999, Whose animals? A history of property rights to wildlife in Toro, western Uganda, Land Degradation and Development 10: 311–328.Google Scholar
  27. Naughton-Treves, L., and Chapman, C. A., 2002, Fuelwood resources and forest regeneration on fallow land in Uganda, J. Sustain Forestry 14: 19–32.Google Scholar
  28. Naughton-Treves, L., Treves, A., Chapman, C. A., and Wrangham, R. W., 1998, Temporal patterns of cropraiding by primates: Linking food availability in croplands and adjacent forest, J. Appl. Ecol 35: 596–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. NEMA (National Environment Management Authority), 1997, Kabarole District environment profile, NEMA, Kampala, Uganda.Google Scholar
  30. Nepstad, D. C., Veríssimo, A., Alencar, A., Nobre, C., Lima, E., Lefebvre, P., Schlesinger, P., Potter, C., Moutinho, P., Mendoza, E., Cochrane, M., and Brooks, V., 1999, Large-scale impoverishment of Amazonian forests by logging and fire, Nature 398: 505–508.Google Scholar
  31. Oates, J. F., 1974, The ecology and behaviour of black-and-white colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza Ruppell) in East Africa, Ph.D. Thesis, University of London, London, UK.Google Scholar
  32. Oates, J. F., 1977, The guereza and its food, in: Primate Ecology, T. H. Clutton-Brock, ed., Academic Press, London, pp. 275–321.Google Scholar
  33. Oates, J. F., 1996, Habitat alteration, hunting, and the conservation of folivorous primates in African forests, Austral. J. Ecol 21: 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Onderdonk, D. A., and Chapman, C. A., 2000, Coping with forest fragmentation: The primates of Kibale National Park, Uganda, hit. J. Primatol. 21: 587–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Osmaston, H. A., 1959, Working plan for the Kibale and Itwara Central Forest Reserves, Toro District, W. Province, Uganda, Forest Department, Uganda.Google Scholar
  36. Paterson, J. D., 1991, The ecology and history of Uganda’s Budongo Forest, Forest and Conservation History 35: 179–187.Google Scholar
  37. Place, F., and Otsuka, K., 2000, Population pressure, land tenure, and tree resource management in Uganda, Land Economics 76: 233–251.Google Scholar
  38. Pulliam, R., 1988, Sources, sinks, and population regulation, Am. Nat 132: 652–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Redford, K. H., 1992, The empty forest, Bioscience 42: 412–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Richards, P. W., 1996, The Tropical Rain Forest, (2nd edition), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Sjaastad, E., and Bromley, D. W., 1997, Indigenous land rights in Sub-Saharan Africa: Appropriation, security, and investment demand, World Development 25: 549–562.Google Scholar
  41. Steinhart, E., 11971, Transition in Western Uganda: 1891–1901, Ph.D. Dissertation. Northwestern University, Chicago.Google Scholar
  42. Struhsaker, T. T., 1975, The Red Colobus Monkey, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  43. Struhsaker, T. T., 1976, A further decline in numbers of Amboseli vervet monkeys, Biotropica 8: 211–214.Google Scholar
  44. Struhsaker, T. T., 1997, Ecology of an African Rain Forest: Logging in Kibale and the Conflict between Conservation and Exploitation, The University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.Google Scholar
  45. Taylor, B. K., 1962, The Western Lacustrine Bantu, Sidney Press Ltd., London, UK.Google Scholar
  46. Terborgh, J., 1992, Diversity and the Tropical Rain Forest, Scientific American Library, New York.Google Scholar
  47. Thomas, C. D., 1994, Extinction, colonization, and metapopulations: Environmental tracking by rare species, Con. Biol 8: 373–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Thomas, C. D., Thomas, J. A., and Warren, M. S., 1992, Distributions of occupied and vacant butterfly habitats in fragmented landscapes, Oecologia 92: 563–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tutin, C. E. G., 1999, Fragmented living: Behavioural ecology of primates in a forest fragment in the Lopé Reserve Gabon, Primates 40: 249–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tutin, C. E. G., White, L. J. T., and Mackanga-Missandzou, A., 1997, The use of rainforest mammals of natural forest fragments in an equatorial African savanna, Con. Biol 11: 1,190–1,203.Google Scholar
  51. Wallmo, K., and Jacobson, S. K., 1998, A social and environmental evaluation of fuel-efficient cook stoves and conservation in Uganda, Env. Conser 25: 99–108.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Colin A. Chapman
    • 1
    • 2
  • Michael J. Lawes
    • 3
  • Lisa Naughton-Treves
    • 4
    • 5
  • Thomas Gillespie
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Wildlife Conservation SocietyBronxUSA
  3. 3.Forest Biodiversity Programme, School of Botany and ZoologyUniversity of NatalScottsvilleSouth Africa
  4. 4.Department of GeographyUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA
  5. 5.Center for Applied Biodiversity ScienceConservation InternationalWashingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations