Shade Coffee Plantations as Wildlife Refuge for Mantled Howler Monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in Nicaragua

  • Colleen McCann
  • Kimberly Williams-Guillén
  • Fred Koontz
  • Alba Alejandra Roque Espinoza
  • Juan Carlos Martínez Sánchez
  • Charles Koontz

Abstract

Flanked on either coast by contrasting ocean bodies and north and south by two continents, Central America is a unique and intriguing account of natural and cultural history (Coates, 1997). The Central American isthmus is a corridor of biological and cultural networks both between and within countries making it a diverse and complex region. Once a vast mosaic of diverse ecosystems, including coral reefs, savannas, semiarid lowlands, rain-forested foothills, cloud forest, and pine-forested volcanoes (Wallace, 1997), the ever-increasing pressures of human densities and economic practices of the 20th century threatened the survival of these fragile systems and the natural resources they supported (Heckadon-Moreno, 1997). The colonization into forested areas and their subsequent transformation into agro-forested lands resulted in a corridor of fragmented forest patches, often associated with continued land modification, human poverty, and political turmoil (Illueca, 1997).

Keywords

Coffee Plantation Spider Monkey Wildlife Refuge Howler Monkey Shade Coffee 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Colleen McCann
    • 1
  • Kimberly Williams-Guillén
    • 2
  • Fred Koontz
    • 3
  • Alba Alejandra Roque Espinoza
    • 4
  • Juan Carlos Martínez Sánchez
    • 4
  • Charles Koontz
    • 3
  1. 1.Wildlife Conservation SocietyBronxUSA
  2. 2.NYCEP/New York UniversityNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Wildlife TrustPallisadesUSA
  4. 4.Fundación CocibolcaManaguaNicaragua

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