Shade Coffee Plantations as Wildlife Refuge for Mantled Howler Monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in Nicaragua

  • Colleen McCann
  • Kimberly Williams-Guillén
  • Fred Koontz
  • Alba Alejandra Roque Espinoza
  • Juan Carlos Martínez Sánchez
  • Charles Koontz


Flanked on either coast by contrasting ocean bodies and north and south by two continents, Central America is a unique and intriguing account of natural and cultural history (Coates, 1997). The Central American isthmus is a corridor of biological and cultural networks both between and within countries making it a diverse and complex region. Once a vast mosaic of diverse ecosystems, including coral reefs, savannas, semiarid lowlands, rain-forested foothills, cloud forest, and pine-forested volcanoes (Wallace, 1997), the ever-increasing pressures of human densities and economic practices of the 20th century threatened the survival of these fragile systems and the natural resources they supported (Heckadon-Moreno, 1997). The colonization into forested areas and their subsequent transformation into agro-forested lands resulted in a corridor of fragmented forest patches, often associated with continued land modification, human poverty, and political turmoil (Illueca, 1997).


Coffee Plantation Spider Monkey Wildlife Refuge Howler Monkey Shade Coffee 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Colleen McCann
    • 1
  • Kimberly Williams-Guillén
    • 2
  • Fred Koontz
    • 3
  • Alba Alejandra Roque Espinoza
    • 4
  • Juan Carlos Martínez Sánchez
    • 4
  • Charles Koontz
    • 3
  1. 1.Wildlife Conservation SocietyBronxUSA
  2. 2.NYCEP/New York UniversityNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Wildlife TrustPallisadesUSA
  4. 4.Fundación CocibolcaManaguaNicaragua

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