How do Howler Monkeys Cope with Habitat Fragmentation?

  • Júlio César Bicca-Marques


Howler monkeys (genus Alouatta) represent a successful radiation of at least nine species (Rylands et al., 2000). Among all Neotropical primate genera, Alouatta inhabits the widest variety of forested habitats and presents the largest geographic distribution, occurring from Mexico to Argentina and South Brazil (Crockett and Eisenberg, 1987; Neville et al., 1988). Howlers are known for their ability to survive in intact or disturbed anthropogenic ecosystems, such as forest fragments as small as a few hectares (Schwarzkopf and Rylands, 1989; Bicca-Marques, 1994; Chiarello and Galetti, 1994; Estrada and Coates-Estrada, 1996; Crockett, 1998; Marsh, 1999; Juan et al., 2000; Gilbert and Setz, 2001).


Home Range Fragment Size Habitat Fragmentation Forest Fragment Home Range Size 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alves, I. M. S. C., 1983, Comportamento e hâbito alimentar de um grupo de bugios (Alouatta caraya Humboldt, 1812) em ambiente semi-natural (Primates, Cebidae), Bachelor’s dissertation, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeiräo Preto.Google Scholar
  2. Bicca-Marques, J. C., 1993, Padräo de atividades diarias do bugio-preto Alouatta caraya (Primates, Cebidae): Urna anâlise temporal e bioenergética, In: A Primatologia no Brasil — 4, M. E. Yamamoto and M. B. C. Sousa, eds., Editora Universitaria-UFRN, Natal, pp. 35–49.Google Scholar
  3. Bicca-Marques, J. C., 1994, Padräo de utilizaçao de uma ilha de mata por Alouatta caraya (Primates: Cebidae), Rev. Brasil. Biol. 54: 161–171.Google Scholar
  4. Bicca-Marques, J. C., and Calegaro-Marques, C., 1994a, Exotic plant species can serve as staple food sources for wild howler populations, Folia Primatol. 63: 209–211.Google Scholar
  5. Bicca-Marques, J. C., and Calegaro-Marques, C., 1994b, Feeding behavior of the black howler monkey (Alouatta caraya) in a seminatural forest, Acta Biol. Leopoldensia 16: 69–84.Google Scholar
  6. Bonvicino, C. R., 1989, Ecologia e comportamento de Alouatta belzebul (Primates: Cebidae) na Mata Atlantica, Rev. Nordestina Biol. 6: 149–179.Google Scholar
  7. Chapman, C., 1987, Flexibility in diets of three species of Costa Rican primates, Folia Primatol. 49:90–105. Chapman, C., 1988, Patterns of foraging and range use by three species of Neotropical primates, Primates 29: 177–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chapman, C. A., and Balcomb, S. R., 1998, Population characteristics of howlers: Ecological conditions or group history, Int. J. Primatol. 19: 385–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chiarello, A. G., 1993a, Activity pattern of the brown howler monkey Alouatta fusca, Geoffroy 1812, in a forest fragment of southeastern Brazil, Primates 34: 289–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chiarello, A. G., 1993b, Home range of the brown howler monkey, Alouatta fusca, in a forest fragment of southeastern Brazil, Folia Primatol. 60: 173–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chiarello, A. G., 1994, Diet of the brown howler monkey Alouatta fusca in a semi-deciduous forest fragment of southeastem Brazil, Primates 35: 25–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chiarello, A. G., and Galetti, M., 1994, Conservation of the brown howler monkey in southeast Brazil, Oryx 28: 37–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Crockett, C. M., 1998, Conservation biology of the genus Alouatta, bit. J. Primatol. 19: 549–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Crockett, C. M., and Eisenberg, J. F., 1987, Howlers: Variations in group size and demography, In: Primate Societies, B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham, and T. T. Struhsaker, eds., The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 54–68.Google Scholar
  15. Cruz, A. C. M. S., Borda, J. T., Patino, E. M., Gómez, L., and Zunino, G. E., 2000, Habitat fragmentation and parasitism in howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya), Neotrop. Primates 8: 146–148.Google Scholar
  16. Cunha, A. S., 1994, Aspectos sócio-ecologicos de um grupo de bugios (Alouatta fusca clamitans) do Parque Estadual de Itapuä, RS, M.Sc. dissertation, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre. DeLuycker, A., 1995, Deforestation, selective cutting, and habitat fragmentation: The impact on a black howler monkey (Alouatta caraya) population in northern Argentina, Bol. Primatol. Lat. 5: 17–24.Google Scholar
  17. Estrada, A., 1984, Resource use by howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in the rain forest of Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico, Int. J. Primatol. 5: 105–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Estrada, A., and Coates-Estrada, R., 1996, Tropical rain forest fragmentation and wild populations of primates at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico, Int. J. Primatol. 17: 759–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Estrada, A., Juan-Solano, S., Martinez, T. O., and Coates-Estrada, R., 1999, Feeding and general activity patterns of a howler monkey (Alouatta palliata) troop living in a forest fragment at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico, Am. J. Primatol. 48: 167–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fortes, V. B., 1999, Dieta, atividades e use do espaço por Alouatta fusca clamitans (Cabrera, 1940 ) (Primates: Cebidae) na Depressäo Central do Rio Grande do Sul, M.Sc. dissertation, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre.Google Scholar
  21. Gaspar, D. A., 1997, Ecologia e comportamento do bugio ruivo, Alouatta fusca (Geoffroy, 1812, Primates: Cebidae), em fragmento de mata de Campinas, SP, M.Sc. dissertation, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro.Google Scholar
  22. Gaulin, S. J. C., and Gaulin, C. K., 1982, Behavioral ecology of Alouatta seniculus in Andean cloud forest, Int. J. Primatol. 3: 1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gilbert, K. A., and Setz, E. Z. F., 2001, Primates in a fragmented landscape: Six species in Central Amazonia, In: Lessons from Amazonia.: The Ecology and Conservation of a Fragmented Forest, R. O. Bierregaard, C. Gascon, T. E. Lovejoy, and R. Mesquita, eds., Yale University Press, New Haven, pp. 262–270.Google Scholar
  24. Glander, K. E., 1978, Howling monkey feeding behavior and plant secondary compounds: A study of strategies, In: The Ecology of Arboreal Folivores, G. G. Montgomery, ed., Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 561–574.Google Scholar
  25. Norwich, R. H., 1998, Effective solutions for howler conservation, Int. J. Primatol. 19: 579–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Johns, A. D., 1986, Effects of selective logging on the behavioral ecology of west Malaysian primates, Ecology 67: 684–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jones, C. B., 1995, Howler monkeys appear to be preadapted to cope with habitat fragmentation, Endangered Species UPDATE 12: 9–10.Google Scholar
  28. Juan, S., Estrada, A., and Coates-Estrada, R., 2000, Contrastes y similitudes en el use de recursos y patron general de actividades en tropas de monos aulladores (Alouatta palliata) en fragmentos de selva en Los Tuxtlas, México, Neotrop. Primates 8: 131–135.Google Scholar
  29. Julliot, C., 1994, Diet diversity and habitat of howler monkeys, In: Current Primatology — Vol. I: Ecology and Evolution, B. Thierry, J. R. Anderson, J. J. Roeder, and N. Herrenschmidt, eds., ULP, Strasbourg, pp. 67–71.Google Scholar
  30. Kinzey, W. G., 1997, Alouatta, In: New World Primates: Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, W. G. Kinzey, ed., Aldine de Gruyter, New York, pp. 174–185.Google Scholar
  31. Kowalewski, M. M., and Zunino, G. E., 1999, Impact of deforestation on a population of Alouatta caraya in northern Argentina, Folia Primatol. 70: 163–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Larose, F., 1996, Foraging strategies, group size, and food competition in the mantled howler monkey, Alouatta palliata, Ph.D. thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton.Google Scholar
  33. Limeira, V. L. A. G., 1996, Comportamento alimentar, padräo de atividades e use do espaço por Alouatta fusca (Primates, Platyrrhini) em um fragmento degradado de Floresta Atlântica no estado do Rio de Janeiro, M.Sc. dissertation, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro.Google Scholar
  34. Lunardelli, M. C., 2000, Padröes de atividade e efeitos de compostos fenólicos na ecologia alimentar de um grupo de bugios-ruivos (Alouatta fusca) no sudeste brasileiro, M.Sc. dissertation, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Säo Paulo.Google Scholar
  35. Marques, A. A. B., 1996, 0 bugio ruivo Alouatta fusca clamitans (Cabrera, 1940 ) ( Primates, Cebidae) na Estaçäo Ecológica de Aracuri, RS: Variaçôes sazonais de forrageamento, M.Sc. dissertation, Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre.Google Scholar
  36. Marsh, L. K., 1999, Ecological effect of the black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) on fragmented forests in the Community Baboon Sanctuary, Belize, Ph.D. thesis, Washington University, St. Louis.Google Scholar
  37. Martins, C. S., 1997, Uso de habitat pelo bugio, Alouatta fusca clamitans, em um fragmento florestal em Lençóis Paulista — SP, M.Sc. dissertation, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas.Google Scholar
  38. Mendes, S. L., 1989, Estudo ecologico de Alouatta fusca (Primates: Cebidae) na Estaçäo Biologica de Caratinga, MG, Rev. Nordestina Biol. 6: 71–104.Google Scholar
  39. Milton, K., 1978, Behavioral adaptations of leaf eating by the mantled howler monkey (Alouatta palliata), In: The Ecology of Arboreal Folivores, G. G. Montgomery, ed., Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 535–549.Google Scholar
  40. Milton, K., 1980, The Foraging Strategy of Howler Monkeys: A Study in Primate Economics, Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  41. Neves, A. M. S., and Rylands, A. B., 1991, Diet of a group of howling monkeys, Alouatta seniculus, in an isolated forest patch in Central Amazonia, In: A Prinwtologia no Brasil — 3, A. B. Rylands, and A. T. Bernardes, eds., Fundaçäo Biodiversitas para a Conservaçäo da Diversidade Biologica, Belo Horizonte, pp. 263–274.Google Scholar
  42. Neville, M. K., 1972, The population structure of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) in Trinidad and Venezuela, Folia Primatol. 17: 56–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Neville, M. K., Glander, K. E., Braza, F., and Rylands, A. B., 1988, The howling monkeys, genus Alouatta, In: Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates — Vol. 2, R. A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. F. CoimbraFilho, and G. A. B. Fonseca, eds., World Wildlife Fund, Washington, D.C., pp. 349–453.Google Scholar
  44. Onderdonk, D. A., and Chapman, C. A., 2000, Coping with forest fragmentation: The primates of Kibale National Park, Uganda, Int. J. Primatol. 21: 587–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ostro, L. E. T., Silver, S. C., Koontz, F. W., Young, T. D., and Horwich, R. H., 1999, Ranging behavior of translocated and established groups of black howler monkeys Alouatta pigra in Belize, Central America, Biol. Conserv. 87: 181–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Peres, C. A., 1997, Effects of habitat quality and hunting pressure on arboreal folivore densities in Neotropical forests: A case study of howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.), Folia Primatol. 68: 199–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Perez, D. M., 1997, Estudo ecologico do bugio-ruivo em uma floresta corn araucaria do sul do Brasil (Alouatta fusca, IHERING 1914–PRIMATES, ATELIDAE), M.Sc. dissertation, Universidade de São Paulo, Säo Paulo.Google Scholar
  48. Pinto, L. P., 2002, Dieta, padräo de atividades e area de vida de Alouatta belzebul discolor (Primates, Atelidae) no sul da Amazônia, M.Sc. dissertation, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas.Google Scholar
  49. Queiroz, H. L., 1995, Preguiças e Guaribas: Os Matnlferos Follvoros Arbor:Colas do Matnirauâ, CNPq/Sociedade Civil Mamirau£, Brasilia.Google Scholar
  50. Rumiz, D. I., Zunino, G. E., Obregozo, M. L., and Ruiz, J. C., 1986, Alouatta caraya: Habitat and resource utilization in northern Argentina, In: Current Perspectives in Primate Social Dynamics, D. M. Taub and F. A. King, eds., Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, pp. 175–193.Google Scholar
  51. Rylands, A. B., Schneider, H., Langguth, A., Mittermeier, R. A., Groves, C. P., and Rodriguez-Luna, E., 2000, An assessment of the diversity of New World primates, Neotrop. Primates 8: 61–93.Google Scholar
  52. Schwarzkopf, L., and Rylands, A. B., 1989, Primate species richness in relation to habitat structure in Amazonian rain forest fragments, Biol. Cons. 48: 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Serio-Silva, J. C., 1997, Studies of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) translocated to a Neotropical rain forest fragment, Lab. Primate Newsl. 36: 11–14.Google Scholar
  54. Silver, S. C., Ostro, L. E. T., Yeager, C. P., and Horwich, R., 1998, Feeding ecology of the black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) in northern Belize, Am. J. Primatol. 45: 263–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sokal, R. R., and Rohlf, F. J., 1995, Biometry, 3rd ed. W. H. Freeman, New York.Google Scholar
  56. Sorensen, T. C., and Fedigan, L. M., 2000, Distribution of three monkey species along a gradient of regenerating tropical dry forest, Biol. Cons. 92: 227–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Steinmetz, S., 2000, Ecologia e comportamento do bugio (Alouatta guariba clantitans, Atelidae-Primates) no Parque Estadual Intervales, SP, M.Sc. dissertation, Universidade de Säo Paulo, São Paulo.Google Scholar
  58. Stoner, K. E., 1996, Habitat selection and seasonal patterns of activity and foraging of mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in northeastern Costa Rica, Int. J. Primatol. 17: 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sussman, R. W., 1987, Species-specific dietary patterns in primates and human dietary adaptations, In: The Evolution of Human Behavior: Primate Models, W. G. Kinzey, ed., State University of New York Press, Albany, pp. 151–179.Google Scholar
  60. Wilkinson, L. E., 1990, Systat, Systat Inc., Evanston.Google Scholar
  61. Zunino, G. E., 1986, Algunos aspectos de la ecologia y etologla del mono aullador negro (Alouatta caraya) en habitat fragmentados, Ph.D. thesis, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires.Google Scholar
  62. Zunino, G. E., Gonzalez, V., Kowalewski, M. M., and Bravo, S. P., In press, Alouatta caraya: Relations among habitat, density, and social organization, Primate Rep.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Júlio César Bicca-Marques
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculdade de BiociênciasPontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrazil

Personalised recommendations