The EMAT technique has been developed for nondestructive examination of railroad wheels for ensuring transportation integrity (Salzburger and Repplinger, 1983; Schramm et al., 1989). The flaws may result from the contact stress with rails, fatiguing, and tensile residual stress caused by excess braking (see §10.4.2). They potentially induce wheel failure and derailment, causing catastrophic damage. Early detection of flaws is required for replacement, which is realized with the automatic inspection of every wheel on a train.
KeywordsTensile Residual Stress Mode Conversion Focal Line Railroad Wheel Rectangular Defect
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