## Abstract

Amplifiers and filters are commonplace devices in the *analog front-end* (AFE) of communication transmitters-receivers (transceivers, in short). In a general sense, these devices provide the necessary adaptation, in terms of power adjustment and signal isolation, between the transmission media (e.g., atmosphere, free space, cable, twisted-pair, optic fiber) and the digital signal processor (DSP) which performs most of the algorithmic tasks needed to guarantee a reliable transmission/reception of the information [1]. In some cases as, for instance, in wireless transceivers, amplification and filtering may take place at multiple steps along the AFE; often using different technologies (CMOS, silicon bipolar, GaAs) or external passive components (e.g., surface-acoustic wave filters) depending on the frequency range at which operations are realized [2]. In this chapter, following the main stream of the book, we focus on the realization of those amplifiers and filters which are used to drive signals to/from the AFE data converters^{†2} at the interface with the DSP block, paying special attention on their implementation in inexpensive CMOS technologies. Such amplifiers and filters are symbolically shown in Fig. 14.1, where preceding/following circuits for reception/transmission have been globally called Rx/Tx medium interface, respectively.

## Keywords

Noise Figure Power Gain Variable Gain Amplifier Compression Point Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line## Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

## References

- [1]C. Chien,
*Digital Radio Systems on a Chip. A Systems Approach*. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell (MA), 2001.Google Scholar - [2]A. A. Abidi, P. R. Gray and R. G. Meyer (Eds.),
*Integrated Circuits for Wireless Communications*. IEEE Press, New York, 1999.Google Scholar - [3]Y. P. Tsividis, and J. Voorman,
*Integrated Continuous-Time Filters: Principles, Design and Applications*. IEEE Press, New York, 1992.Google Scholar - [4]B. Nauta,
*Analog CMOS Filters for Very High Frequencies*. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston (MA), 1992.Google Scholar - [5]S. D. Willingham, and K. W. Martin,
*Integrated Video-Frequency Continuous-Time Filters. High-Performance Realizations in BiCMOS*. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston (MA), 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [6]S. Pavan, and Y. P. Tsividis,
*High Frequency Continuous Time Filters in Digital CMOS Processes*. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston (MA), 2000.Google Scholar - [7]A. Sedra, and P. Brackett,
*Filter Theory and Design: Active and Passive*. Matrix Publishers, Beaverton (OR), 1968.Google Scholar - [8]R. Schaumann, K. Laker, and M. Ghausi,
*Analog Filter Design — Passive, Active RC and Switched-Capacitor*. Prentice Hall Publishers, Englewood-Cliffs (NJ), 1992.Google Scholar - [9]J. C. Rudell, J.-J-Ou, T. B. Cho, G. Chien, F. Brianti, J. A. Weldon, and P. R. Gray, “A 1.9-GHz Wide-Band IF Double Conversion CMOS Receiver for Cordless Telephonne Applications,”
*IEEE J. of Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 32, pp. 2071–2088, December 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [10]P. J. Chang, A. Rofougaran, and A. A. Abidi, “A CMOS Channel-Select Filter for a Direct-Conversion Wireless Receiver,”
*IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 32, pp. 722–729, May 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [11]M. Gustavsson, J. J. Wikner and N. N. Tan,
*CMOS Data Converters for Communications*. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston (MA), 2000.Google Scholar - [12]P. P. Siniscalchi, J. K. Pitz, R. K. Hester, S. M. DeSoto, M. Wang, S. Sridharan, R. L. Halbach, D. Richardson, W. Bright, M. M. Sarraj, J. R. Heliums, C. L. Betty, and G. Westphal, “A CMOS ADSL Codec for Central Office Applications,”
*IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 36, pp. 356–365, March 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [13]D. S. Langford, B. J. Tesch, B. E. Wiliams, and G. R. Nelson, “A BiCMOS Analog Front-End Circuit for an FDM-Based ADSL System,”
*IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 33, pp. 1383–1393, September 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [14]“Digital cellular telecommunication system: Radio transmission and reception (GSM 5.05),” European Telecommunication Standards Inst. (ETSI), Sophia Antip-olis, France.Google Scholar
- [15]T. Stetzler, I. Post, J. Havens, and M. Koyama, “A 2.7–4.5 V single chip GSM transceiver RF integrated circuit,”
*IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 30, pp. 1421–1429, December 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [16]T. Yamawaki, M. Kokubo, K. Irie, H. Matsui, T. Endou, H. Hagisawa, T. Fumya, Y. Shimizu, M. Katagishi, and J. Hildersley, “A 2.7-V GSM RF transceiver IC,”
*IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 32, pp. 2089–2096, December 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [17]P. Orsatti, F. Piazza, and Q. Huang, “A 20-mA-receive, 55-m A-transmit, single-chip GSM transceiver in 0.25-μm CMOS,”
*IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 34, pp. 232–233, December 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [18]A. A. Abidi, “Direct conversion radio transceivers for digital communications,”
*IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 30, pp. 1399–1410, December 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [19]A. Rofougaran, G. Chang, J. J. Rael, J. Y.-C. Chang, M. Rofougaran, P. J. Chang, M. Djafari, J. Min, E. W. Roth, A. A. Abidi, and H. Samueli, “A single-chip 900-MHz spread-spectrum wireless transceiver in 1-um CMOS—Part II: Receiver design,”
*IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 33, pp. 535–547, April 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [20]D. K. Shaeffer and T. H. Lee,
*Low-Power CMOS Radio Receivers*. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell (MA), 1999.Google Scholar - [21]W. Thomann, J. Fenk, R. Hagelauer, and R. Weigel, “Fully Integrated W-CDMA IF Receiver and IF Transmitter Including IF Synthesizer and On-Chip VCO for UMTS Mobiles,”
*IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 36, pp. 1407–1419, September 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [22]J. Crols, and M. Steyaert,
*CMOS Wireless Transceiver Design*. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (The Netherlands), 1997.zbMATHGoogle Scholar - [23]M. S. J. Steyaert, J. Janssens, B. de Muer, M. Borremans, and N. Itoh, “A 2-V CMOS cellular transceiver front-end,”
*IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 35, pp. 1895–1907, December 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [24]S. Tadjpour, E. Cijvat, E. Hegazi and A. A. Abidi, “A 900-Mhz Dual-Conversion Low-IF GSM Receiver in 0.35-μm CMOS,”
*IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 36, pp. 1992–2002, December 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [25]A. Rofougaran, G. Chang, J. J. Rael, J. Y.-C. Chang, M. Rofougaran, P. J. Chang, M. Djafari, M.-K. Ku, E. W. Roth, A. A. Abidi, and H. Samueli, “A single-chip 900-MHz spread-spectrum wireless transceiver in 1-um CMOS—Part I: Architecture and transmitter design,”
*IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 33, pp. 515–534, April 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [26]J. A. Weldon, R. S. Narayanaswami, J. C. Rudell, L. Lin, M. Otsuka, S. Dedieu, L. Tee, K.-C. Tsai, C.-W. Lee, and P. R. Gray, “A 1.75-GHz Highly Integrated Narrow-Band CMOS Transmitter with Harmonic-Rejection Mixers,”
*IEEE J. of Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 36, pp. 2003–2015, December 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [27]F. Behbahani, A. Karimi-Sanjaani, W.-G. Tan, A. Roithmeier, J. C. Leete, K. Hoshino, and A. A. Abidi, “Adaptive Analog IF Signal Processor for a Wide-Band CMOS Wireless Receiver,”
*IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 36, pp. 1205–1217, August 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [28]H. Khorramabadi, M. J. Tarsia, and N. S. Woo, “Baseband Filters for IS-95 CDMA Receiver Applications Featuring Digital Automatic Frequency Tuning,”
*Digest of Technical Papers, International Solid-State Circuits Conference*, pp. 172-173, February 1996.Google Scholar - [29]R. K. Hester, S. Mukherjee, D. Padgett, D. Richardson, W. Bright, M. M. Sarraj, J. T. Nabicht, M. D. Agah, A. Bellaouar, I. Chaudhry, J. R. Heliums, K. Islam, A. Loloee, C.-Y. Tsay, and G. Westphal, “CODEC for Echo-Canceling Full-Rate ADSL Modems,”
*IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 34, pp. 1973–1985, December 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [30]C. Conroy, S. Sheng, A. Feldman, G. Uehara, A. Yeing, C.-J. Hung, V. Subramanian, P. Chiang, P. Lai, X. Si, J. Fan, D. Flynn, and M. He, “A CMOS Analog Front-End IC for DMT ADSL,”
*Digest of Technical Papers, International Solid-State Circuits Conference*, pp. 240-241, February 1999.Google Scholar - [31]H. Darabi, and A. A. Abidi, “A4.5-mW 900-MHz CMOS Receiver for Wireless Paging,”
*IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 35, pp. 1085–1096, August 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [32]T. Hollman, S. Lindfors, M. Länsirinne, J. Jussila, and K. A. I. Halonen, “A 2.7-V CMOS Dual-Mode Baseband Filter for PDC and WCDMA,”
*IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 36, pp. 1148–1153, July 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [33]Z.-Y. Chang, D. Macq, D. Haspeslagh, P. M. P. Spruyt, and B. L. A. G. Goffart, “A CMOS Analog Front-End Circuit for an FDM-Based ADSL System,”
*IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 30, pp. 1449–1456, December 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [34]D. K. Shaeffer, A. R. Shahani, S. S. Mohan, H. Samavati, H. R. Rategh, M. M. Hershenson, M. Xu, C. P. Yue, D. J. Eddleman, and T. H. Lee, “A 115-mW, 0.5-μm CMOS GPS Receiver with Wide Dynamic-Range Active Filters,”
*IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 33, pp. 2219–2231, December 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [35]H. Yamazaki, K. Oishi, and K. Gotoh, “An Accurate Center Frequency Tuning Scheme for 450-kHz CMOS Gm-C Bandpass Filters,”
*IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 34, pp. 1691–1697, December 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [36]K. Lee, J. Park, J.-W. Lee, S.-W. Lee, H. K. Huh, D.-K. Jeong, and W. Kim, “A Single-Cip 2.4-GHz Direct-Conversion CMOS Receiver for Wireless Local Loop using Muliphase Reduced Frequency Conversion Technique,”
*IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 36, pp. 800–809, May 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [37]G. Nicollini, P. Confalonieri, C. Crippa, A. Nagari, S. Mariani, A. Calloni, M. Moioli, and C. Dallavalle, “A High-Performance Analog Front-End 14-Bit Codec for 2.7-V Digital Cellular Phones,”
*IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 33, pp. 1158–1167, August 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [38]C. S. Wong, “A 3-V GSM Baseband Transmitter,”
*IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 34, pp. 725–730, May 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [39]A. Gattani, D. W. Cline, P. J. Hurst, and P. M. Mosinskis, “A CMOS HDLS2 Analog Front-End,”
*IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 35, pp. 1964–1975, December 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [40]I. Mehr, P. Maulik, and D. Paterson, “A 12-bit Integrated Analog Front End for Broadband Wieline Networks,”
*IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 37, pp. 302–309, March 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [41]R. Gregorian, and G. C. Temes,
*Analog*MOS*Integrated Circuits for Signal Processing*. John Wiley, New York, 1986.Google Scholar - [42]K. Nishimura,
*Optimal Partitioning of Analog and Digital Circuitry in Mixed-Signal Circuits for Signal Processing*, PhD. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1993.Google Scholar - [43]B. Brandt, and B. A. Wooley, “A 50-MHz Multibit ΣΔ Modulator for 12-b 2-MHz A/D Conversion,”
*IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 34, pp. 748–760, June 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [44]Y. Geerts, A. M. Marques, M. S. J. Steyaert, and W. Sansen, “A 3.3-V, 15-Bit, Delta-Sigm ADC with a Signal Bandwidth of 1.1MHz for ADSL Applications,”
*IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 34, pp. 927–936, June 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [45]T. Burger, and Q. Huang, “A 13.5-mW 185-Msample/s ΣΔ Modulator for UMTS/GSM Dual-Standard IF Reception,”
*IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 36, pp. 1868–1878, December 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [46]F. Medeiro, B. Pérez-Verdú, and A. Rodríguez-Vázquez.
*Top-down Design of High-Performance Sigma-Delta Modulators*. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (The Netherlands), 1999.Google Scholar - [47]E. J. van der Zwan, K. Philips and C. A. A. Bastiaansen, “A 10.7-MHz IF-to-Base-band ΣΔ A/D Conversion System for AM/FM Radio Receivers”,
*IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 35, pp. 1810–1819, December 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [48]J. van Engelen, R. van de Plasshe, E. Stikvoort, and A. Venes, “A Sixth-Order Continuous-Time Bandpass Sigma-Delta Modulator For Digital Radio IF”,
*IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 34, pp. 1753–1764, December 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [49]L. Breems, and J. H. Huijsing,
*Continuous-Time Sigma-Delta Modulation for A/D Conversion in Radio Receivers*. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (The Netherlands), 2001.Google Scholar - [50]B. Razavi,
*RF Microelectronics*, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River (NJ), 1998.Google Scholar - [51]T. Hanusch, F. Jehring, H.-J. Jentschel, and W. Kluge, “Analog Baseband IC for Dual Mode Direct Conversion Receiver,”
*Proc. of the European Solid-State Circuits Conference*, pp. 244-246 and 249, September 1996.Google Scholar - [52]T.-L. D. Au,
*Programmable, Low-noise, High-linearity Baseband Filter for a Fully-Integrated, Multi-Standard, CMOS RF Receiver*. Masters Thesis, University of California at Berkeley, January 1999.Google Scholar - [53]H. Elwan, A. M. Soliman, and M. Ismail, “A CMOS Norton Amplifier-Based Digitally Controlled VGA for Low-Power Wireless Applications,”
*IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems II*, vol. 48, pp. 245–254, March 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [54]J. Jussila, J. Ryynãnen, K. Kivekãs, L. Sumanen, A. Pãrssinen, and K. A. I. Halo-nen, “A 22-mA 3.0dB NF Direct Conversion Receiver for 3G WCDMA,”
*IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 36, pp. 2025–2029, December 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [55]J. Rudell, J. Weldon, J. Ou, L. Lin, and P. R. Gray, “An integrated GSM/DECT receiver: Design specification,” UCB Electronics Laboratory Memo., Berkeley, CA, 1998.Google Scholar
- [56]S. Fitz, “Receiver architectures for GSM handsets,” in
*IEE Coll. Design of Digital Cellular Handsets*, London, U.K., 1998, pp. 3/1-3/10.Google Scholar - [57]W. H. Sansen, and R. G. Meyer, “Distortion in bipolar transistor variable gain amplifiers,”
*IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 8, pp. 275–282, August 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [58]F. Behbahani, Y. Kishigami, J. Leete, and A. A. Abidi, “CMOS 10 MHz-IF down-converter with on-chip broadband circuit for large image-suppression,” in
*Proc. Symp. VLSI Circuits*, Kyoto, Japan, 1999, pp. 83-86.Google Scholar - [59]I. Mehr, P. C. Maulik, and D. Paterson, “A 12-bit Integrated Analog Front End for Broadband Wireline Networks,”
*IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 37, pp. 302–309, March 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [60]K. R. Laker and W. M. C. Sansen,
*Design of Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems*. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1994.Google Scholar - [61]R. Schaumann, M. S. Ghausi and K. R. Laker,
*Design of Analog Filters*. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1990.Google Scholar - [62]K. D. Peterson, A. Nedungadi and R. L. Geiger, “Amplifier Design Considerations for High Frequency Monolithic Filters,”
*Proceedings of the*1987*European Conf. on Circuit Theory and Design*, pp. 321-326, September 1987.Google Scholar - [63]D. Leenaerst, J. van der Tang, and C. Vaucher,
*Circuit Design for RF Transceiver*. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (The Netherlands), 2001.Google Scholar - [64]J. Janssens and M. Steyaert,
*CMOS Cellular Receiver Front-Ends: From Specification to Realization*. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (The Netherlands), 2002.Google Scholar