Dural Arteriovenous Malformations
Dural arteriovenous fistulas or malformations (dAVM) represent 10% to 15% of intracranial arteriovenous malformations and occur most commonly in the posterior fossa along the sigmoid and transverse sinuses.1 The second most common location is the cavernous sinus, where they are sometimes referred to as “indirect carotid cavernous fistulas.” Various classification schemes for dAVMs have been canvassed, but classification can be simplified by considering the impact of the dAVM on the venous system.2–4 Only those dAVMs with low or moderate flow with antegrade drainage into dural sinuses and without evidence of disturbance of venous flow in the connected venous sinuses or adjacent veins can be considered benign. All others must be considered potential causes of current or future venous hypertension (Fig. 7.1), venous infarction, or intracranial hemorrhage. The risk of imminent complications can be estimated by the degree of reversal of dural sinus venous flow, state of retrograde opacification and ectasia of the parenchymal veins, and the degree of restriction on the venous drainage.
KeywordsCavernous Sinus Transverse Sinus Dural Sinus Sigmoid Sinus Middle Meningeal Artery
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