Extracranial Carotid and Vertebral Angioplasty and Stenting

  • Pearse Morris


A paper in 1964 by Dotter and Judkins1 marks the beginning of the history of percutaneous revascularization procedures. Their technique involved sequential dilatation of lower-extremity atherosclerotic lesions using dilators or bougies of increasing diameter passed across stenotic lesions, with favorable outcomes. A decade later the Grüntzig balloon catheter moved the field of balloon angioplasty (PTA) for iliac-femoral disease forward.23 In 1980 Mullan et al.4 used a Grüntzig balloon catheter to perform one of the first successful carotid angioplasties on a 35-year-female with fibromuscular dysplasia.5 In the same year, Kerber et al.6 described a successful intraoperative common carotid angioplasty performed 3 years previously. The internal carotid artery was clamped for protection of the brain during the procedure and the potential debris was flushed into the external carotid artery, making this also the first report of carotid PTA with distal protection. In 1980 again Sundt et al. reported the first successful transluminal angioplasties of basilar artery stenoses through intraoperative exposures.7


Carotid Artery Internal Carotid Artery Vertebral Artery Carotid Endarterectomy Carotid Stenosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pearse Morris
    • 1
  1. 1.School of MedicineWake Forest UniversityWinston-SalemUSA

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