Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses
Nonepithelial tumors such as those of lymphoid tissue, soft tissue, bone, and cartilage are not included
Summary of Changes
A new site has been added for inclusion into the staging system. In addition to maxillary sinus, the nasoethmoid complex is described as a second site with two regions within this site: nasal cavity and ethmoid sinuses.
The nasal cavity region is further divided into four subsites: septum, floor, lateral wall, and vestibule. The ethmoid sinus region is divided into two subsites: right and left.
The T staging of ethmoid lesions has been revised to reflect nasoethmoid tumors, and appropriate description for the T staging has been added.
For maxillary sinus, T4 lesions have been divided into T4a (resectable) and T4b (unresectable), leading to the division of Stage IV into Stage IVA, J Stage IVB, and Stage IVC.
KeywordsNasal Cavity Basal Cell Carcinoma Paranasal Sinus Maxillary Sinus Small Cell Carcinoma
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
Bridger GP, Mendelsohn MS, Baldwinn M, et al: Paranasal sinus cancer. Aust N Z J Surg 61:290–294, 1991PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cantu G, Solero CL, Mariani L, et al: A new classification for malignant tumors involving the anterior skull base. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 125:1252–1257, 1999PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jiang GL, Ang KA, Peters LJ, et al: Maxillary sinus carcinomas: natural history and results of postoperative radiotherapy. Radiother Oncol 21:194–200, 1991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jiang GL, Morrison WH, Garden AS, et al: Ethmoid sinus carcinoma: natural history and treatment results. Radiother Oncol 49:21–27 1998PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kondo M, Horiuchi M, Shiga H, et al: CT of malignant tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Cancer 50:226–231, 1982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Le QT, Fu KK, Kaplan M, et al: Treatment of maxillary sinus carcinoma. A comparison of the 1997 and 1977 American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging Systems. Cancer 86:1700–1711, 1999PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Paulino AFG, Singh B, Carew J, et al: Epstein-Barr virus in squamous carcinoma of the anterior nasal cavity. Ann Diagn Pathol 4:7–10, 2000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Piccirillo JF. Inclusion of comordibity in a staging system for head and neck cancer. Oncology 9:831–836, 1995PubMedGoogle Scholar
Shah JP, Kraus DH, Bilsky MH, et al: Craniofacial resection for malignant tumors involving the anterior skull base. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 13:1312–1317, 1997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Singh B, Bhaya M, Zimbler M. et al: Impact of cormorbidity on outcome of young patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Head Neck 20:1–7, 1998PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sisson GA, Toriumi DM, Atiyah RH: Paranasal sinus malignancy: a comprehensive update. Laryngoscope 99:143–150, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
Som PM, Dillon WP, Sze G, et al: Benign and malignant sino-nasal lesions with intracranial extension: differentiation with MRI imaging. Radiology 172:763–766, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
Van Tassel P, Lee YY: GD-DTPA enhanced MR for detecting intracranial extension of sinonasal malignancies. JCAT 15:387–392, 1991Google Scholar
© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002