Primary malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma are not included
Summary of Changes
T1 has changed from “Tumor confined within the cortex” to “Tumor 8 cm or less in greatest dimension.”
T2 has changed from “Tumor invades beyond the cortex” to “Tumor more than 8 cm in greatest dimension.”
T3 designation of skip metastasis is defined as “Discontinuous tumors in the primary bone site.” This designation is a Stage III tumor that was not previously defined.
M1 lesions have been divided into M1a and M1b.
M1a is lung-only metastases.
M1b is metastases to other distant sites, including lymph nodes.
In the Stage Grouping, Stage IVA is M1a, and Stage IVB is Mlb
KeywordsMalignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor Lymphatic Vessel Invasion Mesenchymal Chondrosarcoma Myxoid Chondrosarcoma Primary Malignant Lymphoma
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
Bacci G, Ferrari S, Bertoni F, et al: Prognostic factors in non-metastatic Ewing’s sarcoma of bone treated with adjuvant chemotherapy: analysis of 359 patients at the Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli. J Clin Oncol 18:4–11, 2000PubMedGoogle Scholar
Baldini M, Scotlani K, Barbanti-Brodano G, et al: Expression of P-glycoprotein in high-grade osteosarcomas in relation to clinical outcome. N Engl J Med 333:1380–1385, 1995PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bieling P, Rehan N, Winkler P, et al: Tumor size and prognosis in aggressively treated osteosarcoma. J Clin Oncol 14(3): 848–858, 1996PubMedGoogle Scholar
Cotterill SJ, Ahrens S, Paulussen M, et al: Prognostic factors in Ewing’s tumor of bone: analysis of 975 patients from the European Intergroup Cooperative Ewing’s Sarcoma Study Group. J Clin Oncol 18:3108–3114, 2000PubMedGoogle Scholar
Davis A, Bell R, Goodwin P: Prognostic factors in osteosarcoma: a critical review. J Clin Oncol 12(2):423–431, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
de Alva E, Antonescu CR, Panizo A, et al: Prognostic impact of P53 status in Ewing sarcoma. Cancer; 89:783–792, 2000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
de Alva E, Kawai A, Healey JH, et al: EWS-FL11 fusion transcript structure is an independent determinant of prognosis in Ewing’s sarcoma. J Clin Oncol 16:1248–1255, 1998Google Scholar
Enneking WF, Spanier S, Goodman M: A system for the surgical staging of musculoskeletal sarcoma. Clin Orth and Rel Research No. 153, 106–120, 1980Google Scholar
Evans R, Nesbit M, Askin F, et al: Local recurrence, rate and sites of metastases, and time to relapse as a function of treatment regimen, size of primary and surgical history in 62 patients presenting with nonmetastatic Ewing’s sarcoma of the pelvic bones. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 11:129–136, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glasser DB, Lane JM, Huvos AG, et al: Survival, prognosis and therapeutic response in osteosarcoma: the Memorial Hospital experience. Cancer 67:698–708, 1992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gorlick R, Hubos AG, Heller G, et al: Expression of HER2/erbB-2 correlates with survival in osteosarcoma. J Clin Oncol 17:2781–2788, 1999PubMedGoogle Scholar
Hornicek FJ, Gebhardt MC, Wolfe M, et al: P-glycoprotein levels predict poor outcome in patients with osteosarcoma. Clin Orthop and Rel Research 373:11–17, 2000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mankin HJ, Mankin CJ, Simon MA: The hazards of biopsy, revisited. J Bone and Joint Surg 78A:659–663, 1996Google Scholar
Peabody TD, Gibbs CP, Simon MA: Evaluation and staging of musculoskeletal neoplasms. J Bone and Joint Surg 80A: 1204–1218, 1998Google Scholar
Scully SP, Temple HT, Okeefe RJ, et al: Role of surgical resection in pelvic Ewing’s sarcoma. J Clin Oncol 13(9):2336–2341, 1995PubMedGoogle Scholar
Simon MA, Bierman JS: Biopsy of bone and soft-tissue lesions. J Bone and Joint Surg 75A:616–621, 1993Google Scholar
Sundaram M, McDonald DJ: Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the solitary tumor of bone. Current Opinion in Radiology 2:697–702, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
Sundaram M, McDonald DJ: The solitary tumor or tumor-like lesion of bone. Top Magn Reson Imag 1(4): 17–29, 1989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sundaram M, McGuire MH: Computed tomography or magnetic resonance for evaluating the solitary tumor or tumorlike lesion of bone? Skeletal Radiology 17:393–401, 1988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ward WG, Mikaelian K, Dorey F, et al: Pulmonary metastases of stage IIB extremity osteosarcoma and subsequent pulmonary metastases. J Clin Oncol 12(9):1849–1858, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
Wei G, Antonescu CR, de Alva E, et al: Prognostic impact of INK4A deletion in Ewing sarcoma. Cancer 89:793–799, 2000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wuisman P, Enneking WF: Prognosis for patients who have osteosarcoma with skip metastasis. J Bone and Joint Surg 72A(l):60–68, 1990Google Scholar
Wunder JS, Bull SB, Aneliunas V, et al: MDR1 gene expression and outcome in osteosarcoma: a prospective, multicenter study. J Clin Oncol 18:2685–2694, 2000PubMedGoogle Scholar
© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002