Gallbladder

Carcinoid tumors and sarcomas are not included
  • American Joint Committee on Cancer

Summary of Changes

The T and N classifications have been simplified in an effort to separate locally invasive tumors into potentially resectable (T3) and unresectable (T4).

There is no longer a distinction between T3 and T4 based on the depth of liver invasion.

Lymph node metastasis is now classified as Stage IIB, and Stage IIA is reserved for large, invasive tumors (resectable), without lymph node metastasis.

Stage grouping has been changed to allow Stage III to signify locally unresectable disease and Stage IV to indicate metastatic disease.

Keywords

Cystic Duct Papillary Carcinoma Gallbladder Cancer Small Cell Carcinoma Gallbladder Carcinoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliography

  1. Albores-Saavedra J, Henson DE: Tumors of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts. In Atlas of tumor pathology, 2nd series, fascicle 22. Washington, DC: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 1986Google Scholar
  2. Albores-Saavedra J, Henson DE, Sobin LH: Histological typing of tumours of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts. In WHO international histological classification of tumours. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1991Google Scholar
  3. Bergdahl L: Gallbladder carcinoma first diagnosed at micro-scopic examination of gallbladders removed for presumed benign disease. Ann Surg 191:19–22, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bivins BA, Meeker MR, Griffen WO Jr: Importance of histologic classification of carcinoma of the gallbladder. Am Surg 41:121–124, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. de Arexabala X, Roa IS, Burgos LA, et al: Curative resection in potentially resectable tumours of the gallbladder. Euro J Surg 163:419–426, 1997Google Scholar
  6. Donohue JH, Nagorney DM, Grant CS, et al: Carcinoma of the gallbladder: does radical resection improve outcome? Arch Surg 125:237–241, 1990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Donohue JH, Stewart AK, Menck HR: The National Cancer Data Base report on carcinoma of the gallbladder, 1989–1995. Cancer 83:2618–2628, 1998PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fahim RB, McDonald JR, Richards JC, et al: Carcinoma of the gallbladder: a study of its modes of spread. Ann Surg 156:114–124, 1962PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fong Y, Brennan MF, Turnbull A, et al: Gallbladder cancers discovered during laparoscopic surgery: potential for iatrogenic tumor dissemination. Arch Surg 128:1054–1056, 1993PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fong Y, Jarnagin W, Blumgart LH: Gallbladder cancer: comparison of patients presenting initially for definitive operation with those presenting after prior noncurative intervention. Ann Surg 232:557–569, 2000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Guo K J, Yamaguchi K, Enjoji M: Undifferentiated carcinoma of the gallbladder. A clinicopathologic, histochemical, and immunohistochemical study of 21 patients with a poor prognosis. Cancer 61:1872–1879, 1988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Henson DE, Albores-Saavedra J, Corle D: Carcinoma of the gallbladder. Histologic types, stage of disease, grade, and survival rates. Cancer 70:1493–1497, 1992PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hisatomi K, Haratake J, Horie A, et al: Relation of histopatho-logical features to prognosis of gallbladder cancer. Am J Gastroenterol 85:567–572, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Jones RS: Carcinoma of the gallbladder [review]. Surg Clin North Am 70:1419–1428, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Nevin JE, Moran TJ, Kay S, et al: Carcinoma of the gallbladder: staging, treatment, and prognosis. Cancer 37:141–148, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ogura Y, Mizumoto R, Isaji S, et al: Radical operations for carcinoma of the gallbladder: present status in Japan. World J Surg 15:337–343, 1991PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ohtani T, Shirai Y, Tsukada K, et al: Carcinoma of the gallbladder: CT evaluation of lymphatic spread. Radiology 189:875–880, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Ouchi K, Owada Y, Matsuno S, et al: Prognostic factors in the surgical treatment of gallbladder carcinoma. Surgery 101: 731–737, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Perpetuo MD, Valdivieso M, Heilbrun LK, et al: Natural history of gallbladder cancer. Cancer 42:330–335, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Shirai Y, Ohtani T, Hatakeyama K: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy may disseminate gallbladder carcinoma. Hepatogas-troenterology 45:81–82, 1998Google Scholar
  21. Shirai Y, Tsukada K, Ohtani T, et al: Hepatic metastases from carcinoma of the gallbladder. Cancer 75:2063–2068, 1995PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Shirai Y, Yoshida K, Tsukada K, et al: Identification of the regional lymphatic system of the gallbladder by vital staining. Br J Surg 79:659–662, 1992PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Todoroki T, Kawamoto T, Takahashi H, et al: Treatment of gallbladder cancer by radical resection. Br J Surg 86:622–627, 1999PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Yamamoto M, Nakajo S, Tahara E: Carcinoma of the gallbladder: the correlation between histogenesis and prognosis. Virchows Archiv A, Pathological Anatomy and Histopathology 414:83–90, 1989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • American Joint Committee on Cancer
    • 1
  1. 1.Executive OfficeChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations