Liver (Including Intrahepatic Bile Ducts)

  • American Joint Committee on Cancer

Summary of Changes

The T categories in this edition have been redefined and simplified.

All solitary tumors without vascular invasion, regardless of size, are classified as Tl because of similar prognosis.

All solitary tumors with vascular invasion (again regardless of size) are combined with multiple tumors ≤ 5 cm and classified as T2 because of similar prognosis.

Multiple tumors > 5 cm and tumors with evidence of major vascular invasion are combined and classified as T3 because of similarly poor prognosis.

Tumor(s) with direct invasion of adjacent organs other than the gallbladder or with perforation of visceral peritoneum are classified separately as T4.

The separate subcategory for multiple bilobar tumors has been eliminated because of a lack of distinct prognostic value.

T3 NO tumors and tumors with lymph node involvement are combined into Stage III because of similar prognosis.

Stage IV defines metastatic disease only. The subcategories IVA and IVB have been eliminated.


Hepatocellular Carcinoma Vascular Invasion Intrahepatic Bile Duct Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Papillary Adenocarcinoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • American Joint Committee on Cancer
    • 1
  1. 1.Executive OfficeChicagoUSA

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