Flexible and Modular Cell Design

  • Ali K. Kamrani
  • Sa’ed M. Salhieh


The evolution of manufacturing from stand-alone automation to computer-integrated manufacturing has occurred since the 1960s. During the 1960s, stand-alone automation received the most attention. This type of automation, also known as point automation, consists of workstations that may vary from one numerically controlled machine to a number of numerically controlled machines operated by a skilled operator. In standalone automation, the material handling normally is performed manually.


Flow Shop Flexible Manufacturing System Setup Cost Machine Type Part Family 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ali K. Kamrani
  • Sa’ed M. Salhieh

There are no affiliations available

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