Advertisement

The Star User Interface: An Overview

  • David C. Smith
  • Charles Irby
  • Ralph Kimball
  • Eric Harslem
Chapter

Abstract

In April 1981 Xerox announced the 8010 Star Information System, a new personal computer designed for office professionals who create, analyze, and distribute information. The Star user interface differs from that of other offiice computer systems by its emphasis on graphics, its adherence to a metaphor of a physical office, and its rigorous application of a small set of design principles. The graphic imagery reduces the amount of typing and remembering required to operate the system. The offiice metaphor makes the system seem familiar and friendly; it reduces the alien feel that many computer systems have. The design principles unify the nearly two dozen functional areas of Star, increasing the coherence of the system and allowing user experience in one area to apply in others.

Keywords

Display Screen Floppy Disk File Server Record File File Drawer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Smith, D. C., E. F. Harslem, C. H. Irby, R. B. Kimball, and W. L. Verplank. “Designing the Star User Interface.” Byte, April 1982.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Metcalfe, R. M., and D. R. Boggs. “Ethernet: Distributed Packet Switching for Local Computer Networks.” Communications of the ACM, 19 (1976), pp, 395–404,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Intel, Digital Equipment, and Xerox Corporations. “The Ethernet, A Local Area Network: Data Link Layer and Physical Layer Specifications (version 1.0) .” Palo Alto: Xerox Office Products Division, 1980.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Seybold, J. W. “Xerox’s Star.” The Seybold Report. Media, Pennsylvania: Seybold Publications, 10 (1981), 16.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Thacker, C. P., E. M. McCreight, B. W. Lampson, R. F. Sproull, and D. R. Boggs. “Alto: A Personal Computer.” In D. Siewiorek, C. G. Bell, and A. Newell (eds.), Computer Structures: Principles and Examples. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ingalls, D. H. “The Smalltalk Graphics Kernel.” Byte, 6 (1981), pp. 168–194Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    English, W. K., D. C. Engelbart, and M. L. Berman. “Display-Selection Techniques for Text Manipulation.” IEEE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics, HFE-8 (1967), pp. 21–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fitts, P. M. “The Information Capacity of the Human Motor System in Controlling Amplitude of Movement.” Journal of Experimental Psychology, 47 (1954), pp. 381–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Card, S., W. K. English, and B. Burr. “Evaluation of Mouse, Rate-Controlled Isometric Joystick, Step Keys, and Text Keys for Text Selection on a CRT.” Ergonomics, 21 (1978), pp. 601–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Oppen, D. C., and Y. K. Dalal. “The Clearinghouse: A Decentralized Agent for Locating Named Objects in a Distributed Environment.” Palo Alto: Xerox Office Products Division, OPD-T8103, 1981.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Huggins, W. H., and D. Entwisle. Iconic Communication. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Smith, D. C. Pygmalion, A Computer Program to Model and Stimulate Creative Thought. Basel and Stuttgart: Birkhäuser Verlag, 1977.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bolt, R. Spatial Data-Management. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Architecture Machine Group, 1979.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sutherland, I. “Sketchpad, A Man-Machine Graphical Communication System.” AFIPS, Proceedings of the Fall Joint Computer Conference (Vol. 23), 1963, pp. 329–346.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sutherland, W. “On-Line Graphical Specifications of Computer Procedures.” Cambridge, Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1966.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Christensen, C. “An Example of the Manipulation of Directed Graphs in the AMBIT/G Programming Language.” In M. Klerer and J. Reinfelds (eds. ), Interactive Systems for Experimental and Applied Mathematics. New York: Academic Press, 1968.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kay, A. C. The Reactive Engine. Salt Lake City: University of Utah. 1969.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kay, A. C., and the Learning Research Group. “Personal Dynamic Media.” Xerox Palo Alto Research Center Technical Report SSL-76–1, 1976. (A condensed version is in IEEE Computer, March 1977, pp. 31–41.)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Newman, W. M. “Officetalk-Zero: A User’s Manual.” Xerox Palo Alto Research Center Internal Report, 1977.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dahl, O. J., and K. Nygaard. “SIMULA-An Algol-Based Simulation Language.” Communications of the ACM, 9 (1966), pp. 671–678.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lampson, B. “Bravo Manual.” In Alto User’s Handbook, Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, 1976 and 1978. (Much of the design and all of the implementation of Bravo was done by Charles Simonyi and the skilled programmers in his “software factory.”)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Baudelaire, P., and M. Stone. “Techniques for Interactive Raster Graphics.” Proceedings of the 1980 Siggraph Conference, 14 (1980), 3.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tesler, L. “The Smalltalk Environment.” Byte, 6 (1981), pp. 90–147.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wertenbaker, L. The World of Picasso. New York: Time-Life Books, 1967.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bush, V. “As We May Think.” Atlantic Monthly, July 1945.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Engelbart, D. C. “Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework.” Technical Report AFOSR-3223, SRI International, Menlo Park, Calif., 1962.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Engelbart, D. C., and W. K. English. “A Research Center for Augmenting Human Intellect.” AFIPS Proceedings of the Fall Joint Computer Conference (Vol. 33), 1968, pp. 395–410.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • David C. Smith
  • Charles Irby
  • Ralph Kimball
  • Eric Harslem

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations