Optical Imaging and In Vivo Microscopy

  • Zuxing Kan
  • E. Edmund Kim


Useful images of hidden structures or pathological lesions can be created with X-rays, ultrasound, radioactive tracer, and magnetic resonance. However, there are many biological processes that cannot be easily or directly monitored by using computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or nuclear imaging because key molecules in these processes are not distinguishable from each other with these imaging techniques. Light penetrates tissue and is reflected at the surface. Whatever light does penetrate tissue is scattered widely so that shadows of internal structures are blurred beyond recognition. Light has been used in all the varieties of endoscopic imaging, where rigid or flexible tubes are inserted through incisions or natural body openings.


Green Fluorescent Protein Portal Vein Optical Coherence Tomography Hepatic Artery Kupffer Cell 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zuxing Kan
  • E. Edmund Kim

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