Imaging of Apoptosis and Hypoxia

  • David J. Yang
  • E. Edmund Kim


Tumor cells are more sensitive to conventional irradiation in the presence of oxygen than in its absence; even a small percentage of hypoxic cells within a tumor could limit the response to radiation [1–4]. Hypoxic radioresistance has been demonstrated in many animal tumors but only in a few tumor types in humans [5–9]. The occurrence of hypoxia in human tumors has, in most cases, been inferred from histological findings and from animal tumor studies. In vivo demonstration of hypoxia has required tissue measurements with oxygen electrodes, and the invasiveness of these techniques has limited their clinical application. Additionally, this technique can only be used on accessible tumors such as head and neck tumor. Many attempts to increase the radiosensitivity of tumors by administration of chemical radiosensitizers have not been successful [10–14].


Positron Emission Tomography Radiat Oncol Biol Phys Tumor Hypoxia Post Administration Image Apoptosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • David J. Yang
  • E. Edmund Kim

There are no affiliations available

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