Single-Phase Fluid Streams

  • Massoud Kaviany
Part of the Mechanical Engineering Series book series (MES)


Convective heat transfer within single-phase fluid streams is considered in this chapter. The simultaneous presence of a velocity and temperature gradient field within this single-phase medium and the resulting convective heat transfer can be influenced by the compressibility, chemical reactions, turbulence, radiation, electromagnetic fields, and thermobuoyancy. The effects of these mechanisms on the intraphasic heat transfer are discussed by considering the governing equations and by examining some illustrative examples.


Heat Transfer Turbulent Kinetic Energy Heat Mass Transfer Reynolds Shear Stress Flame Speed 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Batchelor, G.K., 1982, The Theory of Homogeneous Turbulence, Cambridge University Press, New York.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. Bejan, A., 1984, Convection Heat Transfer, John Wiley and Sons, New York.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. Benson, S.W., 1976, Thermochemical Kinetics, John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Boyd, I.D., 1993, “Temperature Dependence of Rotational Relaxation in Shock Waves of Nitrogen,” J. Fluid Mech., 246, 343–360.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boyd, I.D., Chen, G., and Candler, G.V., 1995, “Predicting Failure of the Continuum Fluid Equations in Transitional Hypersonic Flows,” Phys. Fluids, 7, 210–219.ADSCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. Bradshaw, P., Editor, 1978, Turbulence, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  7. Branover, H., Lykoudis, P.S., and Mond, M., 1985, Single- and Multiphase Flows in an Electromagnetic Field: Energy, Metallurgical, and Solar Applications, Vol. 100, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, American Institute of Aeronautic and Astronautics, New York.Google Scholar
  8. Brewster, M.Q., 1992, Thermal Radiation Transfer and Properties, John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, M.A., and Churchill, S.W., 1993, “Transient Behavior of an Impulsively Heated Fluid,” Chem. Eng. Technol., 16, 82–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carlson, B.G., and Lathrop, K.D., 1968, “Transport Theory: The Method of Discrete Ordinates,” in Computing Methods in Reactor Physics, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Cebeci, T., and Bradshaw, P., 1984, Physical and Computational Aspects of Convection Heat Transfer, Springer-Verlag, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cess, R.D., and Tiwari, S.N., 1972, “Infrared Radiative Energy Transfer in Gases,” Advan. Heat Transfer, 8, 229–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chambers, A.J., Antonia, R.A., and Fulachier, L., 1985, “Turbulent Prandtl Number and Spectral Characteristics of a Turbulent Mixing Layer,” Int. J. Heat Transfer, 28, 1461–1468.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chen, F.F., 1974, Introduction to Plasma Physics, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Chen, J.C., and Nikitopoulos, P., 1979, “On the Near-Field Characteristics of Axisymmetric Turbulent Buoyant Jets in a Uniform Environment,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 22, 245–255.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cho, J.R., and Chung, M.K., 1992, “A k-ϵ-γ Equation Turbulence Model,” J. Fluid Mech., 237, 301–322.ADSCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. Davis, L.R., Shirazi, M.A., and Siegel, D.L., 1978, “Measurement of Buoyant Jet Entrainment from Single and Multiple Sources,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 100, 442–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Deissler, R.G., 1964, “Diffusion Approximation for Thermal Radiation in Gases with Jump Boundary Conditions,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 86, 240–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Driscoll, W.G., and Vaughan, W., Editors, 1978, Handbook of Optics, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  20. Eckert, E.R.G., and Pfender, E., 1967, “Advances in Plasma Heat Transfer,” Advan. Heat Transfer, 4, 229–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Edwards, D.K., 1981, Radiation Heat Transfer Notes, Hemisphere Publishing Company, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Emanuel, G., and Argrow, B.M., 1994, “Linear Dependence of the Bulk Viscosity on Shock Wave Thickness,” Phys. Fluids, 6, 3203–3205.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ferchichi, M., and Tavoularis, S., 1992, “Evolution of a Thermal Mixing Layer in Uniformly Sheared Turbulent Flow,” Phys. Fluids, A4, 997–1006.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fiveland, W.A., 1988, “Three-Dimensional Radiative Heat Transfer Solutions by the Discrete-Ordinates Method,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 2, 309–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fujino, T., Yokoyama, Y., and Mori, Y.H., 1989, “Augmentation of Laminar Forced-Convective Heat Transfer by the Application of a Transverse Electric Field,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 111, 345–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gebhart, B., Hilder, D.S., and Kelleher, M., 1984, “The Diffusion of Turbulent Buoyant Jets,” Advan. Heat Transfer, 16, 1–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gebhart, B., Jaluria, Y., Mahajan, R.L., and Sammakia, B., 1988, Buoyancy-Induced Flows and Transport, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, Washington, DC.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  28. Gibson, M.M., and Launder, B.E., 1976, “On the Calculation of Horizontal, Turbulent, Free Shear Flows Under Gravitational Influence,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 98, 81–87.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gilbarg, D., and Paolucci, D., 1953, “The Structure of Shock Waves in the Continuum Theory of Fluids,” J. Rational Mech. Analys., 2, 617–642.MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  30. Glassman, I., 1987, Combustion, Second Edition, Academic Press, Orlando.Google Scholar
  31. Grad, H., 1952, “The Profile of a Steady-Plane Shock Wave,” Comm. Pure Appl. Math., V, 257–300.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Grinstein, F.F., and Kailasanath, K., 1992, “Chemical Energy Release and Dynamics of Transitional, Reactive Shear Flows,” Phys. Fluids, A4, 2207–2221.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hanamura, K., 1994, Gifu University (Private Communication).Google Scholar
  34. Hermanson, J.C., and Dimotakis, P.E., 1989, “Effects of Heat Release in a Turbulent, Reacting Shear Layer,” J. Fluid Mech., 199, 333–375.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hinze, J., 1975, Turbulence, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  36. Hubbard, G.L., and Tien, C.-L., 1978, “Infrared Mass Absorption Coefficients of Luminous Flames and Smoke,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 100, 235–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Imberger, J., and Hamblin, P.F., 1982, “Dynamics of Lakes, Reservoirs and Cooling Ponds,” Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 14, 153–187.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jaluria, Y., 1980, Natural Convection Heat and Mass Transfer, Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  39. Jones, T.B., 1978, “Electrohydrodynamically Enhanced Heat Transfer in Liquids: A Review,” Advan. Heat Transfer, 14, 107–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Katta, V.R., and Roquemore, W.M., 1993, “Role of Inner and Outer Structure in Transitional Jet Diffusion Flame,” Combust. Flame, 92, 274–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kaviany, M., and Seban, R.A., 1981, “Transient Turbulent Thermal Convection in a Pool of Water,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 24, 1742–1746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kaviany, M., 2001, Principles of Heat Transfer, John Wiley and Sons, New York, in press.Google Scholar
  43. Kawamura, H. and Kurihara, Y., 2000, “Modelling Turbulent Scalar Transport in Homogeneous Turbulance,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 43, 1935–1945.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  44. Kee, R.J., Rupley, F.M., and Miller, J.A., 1989, “CHEMKIN-II: A Fortran Chemical Kinetics Package for the Analysis of Gas-Phase Chemical Kinetics,” SAND 89–8009. UC-401, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA.Google Scholar
  45. Kerstein, A.R., 1992, “Linear-Eddy Modeling of Turbulent Transport. Part 7. Finite-Rate Chemistry and Multi-Stream Mixing,” J. Fluid Mech., 240, 289–313.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Konuma, M., 1992, Film Deposition by Plasma Techniques, Springer-Verlag, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kuo, K.K.-Y., 1986, Principles of Combustion, John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  48. Landahl, M.T., and Mollo-Christensen, E., 1987, Turbulence and Random Process in Fluid Mechanics, Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  49. Launder, B.E., 1978a, “On the Effect of a Gravitational Field on the Turbulent Transport of Heat and Momentum,” J. Fluid Mech., 67, 569–581.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Launder, B.E., 1978b, “Heat and Mass Transport” in Turbulence, Bradshaw, P., Editor, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  51. Launder, B.E., 1988, “On the Computation of Convective Heat Transfer in Complex Turbulent Flows,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 110, 1112–1128.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lesieur, M., 1987, Turbulence in Fluids: Statistical and Numerical Modeling, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lewis, B., and von Elbe, G., 1987, Combustion, Flames and Explosions of Gases, Third Edition, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  54. List, E.J., 1982, “Turbulent Jets and Plumes,” Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 14, 189–212.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ljuboja, M., and Rodi, W., 1981, “Production of Horizontal and Vertical Turbulent Buoyant Wall Jets,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 103, 343–349.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lockwood, F.C., and Naguib, A.S., 1975, “The Prediction of the Fluctuations in the Properties of Free, Round-Jet, Turbulent, Diffusion Flames,” Combust. Flame, 24, 109–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lorrain, P., and Corson, D.R., 1970, Electromagnetic Field and Waves, Second Edition, W.H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  58. Luikov, A.V., and Berkovsky, B.M., 1970, “Thermoconvective Waves,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 13, 741–747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Madni, I.K., and Pletcher, R.H., 1979, “Buoyant Jets Discharging Nonvertically into a Uniform, Quiescent Ambient: A Finite-Difference Analysis and Turbulence Modeling,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 99, 641–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mahalingam, S., Cantwell, B.J., and Ferziger, J.H., 1990b, “Full Numerical Simulation of Coflowing, Asymmetric Jet Diffusion Flame,” Phys. Fluids, A2, 720–728.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mahalingam, S., Ferziger, J.H., and Cantwell, B.J., 1990a, “Self-Similar Diffusion Flows,” Combust. Flame, 82, 231–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Martin, P.J., and Richardson, A.T., 1984, “Conductivity Models of Electrothermal Convection in a Plane Layer of Dielectric Liquid,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 106, 131–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Martynenko, O.G., and Korovkin, V.N., 1992, “Concerning the Calculation of Plane Turbulent Jets of the Basis of κ-ϵ Model of Turbulence,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 35, 3389–3395.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  64. Melcher, J.R., and Taylor, G.I., 1969, “Electrohydrodynamics: A Review of the Role of Interfacial Shear Stresses,” Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech, 1, 111–146.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Modest, M.F., 1993, Radiative Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  66. Monin, A.S., and Yaglom, A.M., 1979, Statistical Fluid Mechanics: Mechanics of Turbulence, Vol. 1, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  67. Monin, A.S., and Yaglom, A.M., 1981, Statistical Fluid Mechanics: Mechanics of Turbulence, Vol. 2, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  68. Mott-Smith, H.M., 1951, “The Solution of the Boltzmann Equation for a Shock Wave,” Phys. Rev. Ser. 2, 82, 885–892.MathSciNetADSCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  69. Mullett, L.B., 1993, “The Role of Buoyant Thermals in Salt Gradient Solar Ponds and Convection More Generally,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 36, 1923–1941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ohwada, T., 1993, “Structure of Normal Shock Waves: Direct Numerical Analysis of the Boltzmann Equations for Hard-Sphere Molecules,” Phys. Fluids, A5, 217–234.MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ozisik, M.N., 1985, Radiative Heat Transfer and Interaction with Conduction and Convection, Werbel & Peck, New York.Google Scholar
  72. Panchapakesan, N.R., and Lumley, J.L., 1993, “Turbulence Measurements in Axisymmetric Jets of Air and Helium. Part 1. Air Jets. Part 2. Helium Jets,” J. Fluid Mech., 246, 197–247.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Peters, M., 1992, “A Spectral Closure for Premixed Turbulent Combustion in the Flamelet Regime,” J. Fluid Mech., 242, 611–629.MathSciNetADSCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  74. Pierce, A.D., 1989, Acoustics: An Introduction to Its Physical Principle and Applications, Acoustical Society of America, Woodbury, CT.Google Scholar
  75. Pletcher, R.H., 1988, “Progress in Turbulent Forced Convection,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 110, 1129–1144.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Prasad, K., and Price, E.W., 1992, “A Numerical Study of the Leading Edge of Laminar Diffusion Flames,” Combust. Flame, 90, 155–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Riley, J.J., Metcalfe, R.W., and Orszag, S.A., 1986, “Direct Numerical Simulations of Chemically Reacting Turbulent Mixing Layers,” Phys. Fluids, 29, 406–422.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Romig, M.F., 1964, “The Influence of Electric and Magnetic Fields on Heat Transfer to Electrically Conducting Fluids,” Advan. Heat Transfer, 1, 267–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rutland, C.J., and Trouvé, A., 1993, “Direct Simulations of Premixed Turbulent Flames with Nonunity Lewis Numbers,” Combust. Flame, 94, 41–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Schlichting, H., 1979, Boundary-Layer Theory, Seventh Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  81. Schreier, S., 1982, Compressible Flow, John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  82. Seban, R.A., and Behnia, M.M., 1976, “Turbulent Buoyant Jets in Unstratified Surroundings,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 19, 1197–1204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sforza, P.M., and Mons, R.F., 1978, “Mass, Momentum, and Energy Transport in Turbulent-Free Jets,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 21, 371–384.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Shercliff, J.A., 1965, A Textbook of Magnetohydrodynamics, Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  85. Sherman, F.S., 1955, A Low-Density Wind-Tunnel Study of Shock-Wave Structure and Relaxation Phenomena in Gases, NASA Technical Report 3298.Google Scholar
  86. Sherman, F.S., 1990, Viscous Flow, McGraw-Hill, New York.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  87. Sherman, F.S., Imberger, J., and Corcos, G.M., 1978, “Turbulence and Mixing in Stably Stratified Waters,” Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 10, 267–288.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Shohet, J.L., 1971, The Plasma State, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  89. Siegel, R., and Howell, J.R., 1992, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, Third Edition, Hemisphere Publishing Company, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  90. Sirovich, L., Editor, 1991, New Perspectives in Turbulence, Springer-Verlag, New York.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  91. So, R.M.C., and Aksoy, H., 1993, “On Vertical Turbulent Bouyant Jets,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 36, 3187–3200.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  92. Steinfeld, J.I., Francisco, J.S., and Hase, W.L., 1987, Chemical Kinetics and Dynamics, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.Google Scholar
  93. Strykowski, P.J., and Russ, S., 1992, “The Effect of Boundary-Layer Turbulence on Mixing in Heated Jets,” Phys. Fluids, A4, 865–868.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Tennekes, H., and Lumley, J.L., 1972, A First Course in Turbulence, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  95. Tien, C.-L., 1968, “Thermal Radiation Properties of Gases,” Advan. Heat Transfer, 5, 253–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Tsai, M.C., and Kou, S., 1990, “Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Welding Arcs Produced by Sharpened and Flat Electrodes,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 33, 2089–2098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Turnbull, R.T., 1968, “Electroconvective Instability with a Stabilizing Temperature Gradient. I. Theory, II. Experimental Results,” Phys. Fluids, 12, 2588–2603.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Turner, J.S., 1979, Buoyancy Effects in Fluids, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  99. White, F.M., 1974, Viscous Fluid Flow, McGraw-Hill, New York.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  100. White, F.M., 1991, Viscous Fluid Flow, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  101. Williams, F.A., 1985, Combustion Theory, Addison-Wesley, Redwood City, CA.Google Scholar
  102. Woods, L.C., 1993, An Introduction to the Kinetic Theory of Gases and Magnetoplamas, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  103. Yang, H.Q., 1992, “Buckling of a Thermal Plume,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 35, 1527–1532.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Zel’dovich, Ya. B., and Raiser, Yu. P., 1969, “Shock Waves and Radiation,” Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 1, 385–412.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Zhao, G.Y., Mostaghimi, J., and Boulos, M.I., 1990, “The Induction Plasma Chemical Reactor: Part I. Equilibrium Model,” Plasma Chem. Plasma Process., 10, 133–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Massoud Kaviany
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied MechanicsUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations