The Malonic Acid Reagent (“Sodium Geometrate”)

  • Arthur T. Winfree
Part of the Interdisciplinary Applied Mathematics book series (IAM, volume 12)


A new chemical reaction with either excitable or periodic dynamics appears every month in the theoretical journals (in 1978). But only one has been widely studied experimentally in ways that reveal wave-like organization in space. There are already two entire books about it: Zhabotinsky (1974, in Russian) and Tyson (1976).


Volume Element Wave Train Wave Pattern Vortex Line Malonic Acid 
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  1. 1.
    In a previous publication (Winfree, 1978a) I gave this recipe with ammonium bromomalonate. It turns out that this is not necessary, which is just as well since this is usually a mixture of mono—with dibrominated product in variable proportions.Google Scholar
  2. 4.
    At shorter periods approaching the rotor’s, the critical radius becomes about twice as long in media allowing all reactants to diffuse equally, thus the pacemaker nucleus must control an eightfold larger volume during each such shorter period. I have never seen a pacemaker with period short enough to compete with rotors.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arthur T. Winfree
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary BiologyUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA

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