Ultrasound Techniques in Minimal-Access Surgery

  • Jack J. Jakimowicz
  • G. N. M. Stultiëns


Despite the developments and refinements in diagnostic imaging, such as ultrasonographyenhanced computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), laparoscopy remains generally accepted as an important diagnostic procedure in the staging of gastrointestinal (GI) malignancy. The advent of mobile ultrasound systems and high-resolution dedicated laparoscopic ultrasound transducer probes enables the application of laparoscopic intraoperative ultrasonography (LIOU) for staging procedures. LIOU substitutes for a lack of tactile information during laparoscopy, and enables visualization of lesions in parenchymatous organs such as the liver, pancreas, and kidney. LIOU also facilitates assessment of anatomy and of the extent of pathology, as well as detection of unexpected concomitant lesions not assessable by direct vision through the laparoscope.


Sentinel Lymph Node Gastric Cardia Color Doppler Imaging Ultrasound Contrast Agent Ultrasound Technique 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Machi J, Sigel B, Kurohiji, T et al. Operative color Doppler imaging for general surgery. J Ultrasound Med 1993; 12: 455–461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Van Holsbeeck M, IntrocasoJH. Musculoskeletal Ultrasound. Chicago: Mosby Yearbook Medical, 1991.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sanders C, Campbell J, Guidi SM, et al. Clinical Sonography—a Practical Guide. Boston: Little, Brown, 1994: 1–6.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Galetti O, Buccianti P, Cavina E. Laparoscopic Sonography. Bologna, Italy: Editorial Grasso, 1994.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jakimowicz JJ, Stultiëns G. Laparoscopic intra-operative ultrasonography, color Doppler, and power flow application. Semin Laparosc Surg 1997; 4: 110–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jakimowicz B. Ultrasonography for laparoscopy and endoscopy. In: Toouli JG, Gossot D, Hunter, eds. Endosurgery. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1996.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    John TG, Garden OJ. Laparoscopic ultrasound for diagnostic of pancreatic conditions. In: Toouli JG, Gossot D, Hunter, eds. Endosurgery. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1996, pp. 583598.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bemelman WA, De Wit LTh, van Delden OM, et al. Diagnostic laparoscopy combined with laparoscopie ultrasonography in staging of cancer of pancreatic head region. Br J Surg 1995; 82: 820824.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Okita K, Kodama T, Oda M, et al. Diagnosis of liver and pancreatic cancer. Laparoscopic ultrasonography. Scand J Gastroenterol 1984; 19 (suppl 94): 91–100.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cuesta MA, Meijer S, Borgestein PJ. Laparoscopie ultrasound of liver and biliary tract. In: Toouli JG, Gossot D, Hunter, eds. Endosurgery. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1996, pp. 435454.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    John TG, Garden OJ. Laparoscopic targeted liver biopsies. In: Toouli JG, Gossot D, Hunter, eds. Endosurgery. New York: Churchill Living- 27. stone, 1996, pp. 455–462.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    John TG, Greig JD, Crosbie JL, et al. Superior staging of liver tumours with laparoscopy and laparoscopic ultrasound. Ann Surg 28. 1994; 220: 711–719.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Goletti O, Buccianti P, Chiarugi, M et al. Laparoscopic sonography in screening metastases from gastrointestinal cancer: comparative accuracy with traditional procedures. Surg Laparosc Endosc 1995; 5 (3): 176–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Machi J, Isomoto H, Yamashita Y, et al. Intra-operative ultrasonography in screening for liver metastases from colorectal cancer: comparative accuracy with traditional procedures. Surgery 1987; 101: 678–684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gozzetti G, Mazziotti A, Bolondi L, et al. Intra-operative ultrasonography in surgery for liver tumors. Eur Surg Res 1986; 18: 103.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Grigioni W, Bellusci R, Villanacci V, et al. Intra-operative ultrasonography in surgery for liver tumors. Surgery 1986; 99: 523–529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bismuth H, Castaing D, Kunstlinger F. L’echographie peroperatorie en chirurgie hepatobiliaire. Presse Med 1984; 13: 1819–1822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Makuuchi M, Hasegawa H, Yamazaky S, et al. The use of operative ultrasound as an aid to liver resection in patients hepatocellular carcinoma. World J Surg 1987; 11: 615.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gozzetti G, Mazziotti A, Bolondi L. Ecografia Intraoperatoria in Chirurgia Epatobiliare e Pancreatica. Milano: Masson, 1986.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fornari F, Civardi G, Cavanna L, et al. Laparoscopic sonography in the study of liver diseases. Preliminary results. Surg Endosc 1985; 3: 33–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Okita K, Kodama T, Oka M, et al. Laparoscopic ultrasonography. Diagnosis of liver and pancreatic cancr. Scand J Gastroenterol 1984; 19: 9 1100.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bonhof JA, Frank K, Loch EG, et al. Laparoscopic sonography. Ann Radiol 1985; 28 /1: 1618.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Goletti O, Buccianti P, Cavina E. Laparoscopic Sonography. Bologna: Nuova Grasso, 1994.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cuschieri A. Personal communication, 1998.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sheu JC, Lee CS, Sung JL, et al. Intraoperative hepatic ultrasonography. An indispensable procedure in resection of small hepatocellular carcinoma. Surgery 1985; 97: 97–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26..
    Lezoche E, Paganini AM, Feliciotti F, et al. 39. Ultrasound-guided laparoscopic cryoablation of hepatic tumors: preliminary report. WorldJ Surg 1998; 22: 829–836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Barlett DL, Conlon KCP, Gerdes H, et al. Laparoscopic ultrasonography: the best pretreatment staging modality in gastric adenocarcinoma? Case report. Surgery 1995; 118: 562–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Feussner H, Kraemer SJ, SiewertJR. Technik der laparoskopischen Ultraschalluntersuchung bei der diagnostischen Laparoskopie. Aktuelle Operationstechniken. Langenbecks Arch Chir 1994; 379: 248–254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rau B, Hünerbein M, Schlag PM. Laparoskopie and Laparoskopische Endosonographie als Staginguntersuchung bei Tumoren des oberen Gastrointestinaltraktes. Zentralbl Chir 1995; 120: 346–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Finch MD, John TG, Garden OJ, et al. Laparoscopic ultrasonography for staging gastroesophageal cancer. Original Commun Surg 1997 (January); 121: 10–17.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rau B, Hünerbein M, Reingruber B. Laparoscopic lymph node assessment in pretherapeutic staging of gastric and esophageal cancer. Recent Results Cancer Res 1996; 142.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Weiner R, Winterberg U, Bockhom H. Laparoskopisches Staging bei gastrointestinalen Tumoren. Zentralbl Chir 1995; 120: 350–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Anderson D, Campbell S, Park K. Accuracy of laparoscopic ultrasonography in the staging of upper gastrointestinal malignancy. Br J Surg 1996; 83: 1424–1428.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Stultiëns G, Jakimowicz J, Cruesen J, et al. In: Szabo Z, ed. Training phantom for ultrasound with a tissue mimicking material. Surgical Technology International, vol. 7. San Francisco: Universal Medical Press, 1998: 151–155.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kudo M, Tomila S, Minowa K. Color Doppler glow imaging of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia. J Ultrasound Med 1992; 11: 553–557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Learch T, Ralls P, Johnson M. Hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia: findings with color Doppler sonography. J Ultrasound Med 1993; 12: 54 1554.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hübsch P, Schurawitzki H, Susani M, et al. Color Doppler imaging of inferior vena cava: identification of tumor thrombosus. J Ultrasound Med 1992; 11: 639–645.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tanaka S, Kitamara T, Fujita M, et al. Small hepatocellular carcinoma: differentiation from adenomatous hyperplastic nodule with color Doppler flow imaging. Radiology 1992; 182: 161–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fomage B. Role of color Doppler imaging in dif- ferentiating between pseudocystic malignant tumors and fluid collections. J Ultrasound Med 1995; 14: 125–128.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cosgrove D, Bamber J, Davey J, et al. Color frequency-based color Doppler US. Radiology 1990; 176: 175–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dixon J, Waslh J, Paterson D, et al. Color Doppler ultrasonography studies of benign and malign nant breast lesions. Br J Surg 1992; 79: 259–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Dymling S, Persson H, Hertz H. Measurements of blood perfusion in tissue using Doppler ultrasound. nography. Ultrasound Med Biol 1991; 17: 433–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bude R, Rubin J, Alder R. Power versus conven tional color Doppler sonography: comparison in the depiction of normal intrarenal vasculature Radiology 1994; 192: 777–780.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rubin J, Bude R, Carson P, et al. Power Doppler US: a potentially useful alternative to mean Doppler signals from breast tumors. Radiology 1994; 190: 853–856.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Giovagnorio F, Quaranta L. Power Doppler so nography enhances visualization of orbital vessels. J Ultrasound Med 1995; 14: 837–842.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Newman J, Alder R, Bude R, et al. Detection of 260. soft-tissue hyperemia: value of power Doppler soAJR 1994; 163: 385–389.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Machi J, Sigel B, Kurohiji T, et al. Operative color Doppler imaging for general surgery. J Ultrasound Med 1993; 12: 455–461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mirzuguchi Y. Color Doppler sonography of hepatocellular carcinoma—value of color angio. and color perspective imaging techniques. Med Rev 1996; 57: 19–20.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jack J. Jakimowicz
  • G. N. M. Stultiëns

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations