Management of Esophageal Cancer

  • James D. Luketich
  • Philip R. Schauer


The number of new cases of esophageal cancer in the United States in 2000 likely will exceed the 12,000 annually recorded in previous years. Although two histologic subtypes exist, the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus in the last two decades has been increasing dramatically throughout North America and Europe.1–3 The primary risk factor is chronic heartburn leading to a sequence of esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, and ultimately adenocarcinoma. The overall 5-year survival rate is a disappointing 5% to 10%. However, in patients who present early in the course of the disease where the tumor is confined solely to the esophagus, the 5-year survival can be as high as 85%, thus emphasizing the importance of accurate staging at the initial evaluation.4


Positron Emission Tomography Esophageal Cancer Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Esophageal Carcinoma Laparoscopic Heller Myotomy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Yang P, Davis S. Incidence of cancer of the esophagus in the US by histologic type. Cancer 1988; 61: 612–617.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Blot W, Devesa S, Kneller R, et al. Rising incidence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastric cardia. JAMA 1991; 265: 1287–1289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Moyana T, Janoski M. Recent trends in the epidemiology of esophageal cancer: comparison of epidermoid and adenocarcinomas. Ann Clin Lab Sei 1996; 26: 480–486.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nigro J, DeMeester S, Hagen J, et al. Node status in transmural esophageal adenocarcinoma and outcome after en bloc esophagectomy. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1999; 117: 960–968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Luketich J, Schauer P, Meitzer C, et al. Role of positron emission tomography in staging the patient with esophageal cancer. Ann Thorac Surg 1997; 64: 765–769.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Luketich J, Meehan M, Schauer P, et al. Minimally Invasive Surgical Staging for Esophageal Cancer (abstract). San Antonio, TX: SAGES, 1999.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Luketich J, Freidman D, Weigel T, et al. Evaluation of distant metastases in esophageal cancer: 100 consecutive PET scans. Ann Thorac Surg 1999; 68: 1133–1137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Luketich J, Schauer P, Landreneau R, et al. Minimally invasive surgical staging is superior to endoscopic ultrasound in detecting lymph node metastases in esophageal cancer. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1997; 114: 817–823.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Krasna M, Flowers J, Attar S, et al. Combined thoracoscopic/laparoscopic staging of esophageal cancer. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1996;111:800–806; discussion 806–807.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nguyen N, Luketich J. The terminal patient: palliation of dysphagia in advanced esophageal cancer: In: Carrau R, Murry T, eds. Comprehensive Management of Swallowing Disorders. San Diego, London: Singular Publishers Group, 1999: 377–381.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Maley R, Luketich J. Esophagectomy for swallowing disorders. In: Carrau R, Murry T, eds. Comprehensive Management of Swallowing Disorders. San Diego, London: Singular Publishers Group, 1999: 333–336.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lightdale C, Heier S, Marcon N, et al. Photo-dynamic therapy with porfimer sodium versus thermal ablation therapy with Nd:YAG for palliation of esophageal cancer: a multi-center randomized trial. Gastrointest Endosc 1995; 42: 507–512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Luketich J, Nguyen N, Weigel T, et al. Photo-dynamic therapy for treatment of malignant dysphagia. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutaneous Tech 1999; 9: 171–175.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nguyen N, Churma S, Luketich J, et al. Endoscopic Photodynamic Therapy for Esophagus Cancer (abstract.) San Antonio, TX: SAGES, 1999.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Luketich JD, Nguyen NT, Keenan RJ, et al. The Efficacy of Expandable Metal Stents for Malignant Esophageal Obstruction. A Single Institution Experience (abstract). Boston: America College of Gastroenteology, 1998.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Millikan K, Silverstein J, Hart V, et al. A 15-year review of esophagectomy for carcinoma of the esophagus and cardia. Arch Surg 1995; 130: 617–624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Patti M, Corvera C, Glasgow R, Way L. A hospital’s annual rate of esophagectomy influences the operative mortality rate. J Gastrointest Surg 1998; 2: 186–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Luketich J, Schauer P, Urso K, et al. Future directions in esophageal cancer. Chest 1998; 113: 120S - 122S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Akaishi T, Kaneda I, Higuchi N, et al. Thoracoscope en bloc total esophagectomy with vertical mediastinal lymphadenectomy. J Thorac Cardio-vasc Surg 1996; 112: 1533–1541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dexter S, Martin I, McMahon M. Radical thora-coscopic esophagectomy for cancer. Surg Endosc 1996; 10: 147–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    DePaula A, Hashiba K, Ferreira E, et al. Transhiatal approach for esophagectomy. In: ToouliJ, Gossot D, Hunter J, eds. Endosurgery. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1996; 293–299.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Swanstrom L, Hansen P. Laparoscopic total esophagectomy. Arch Surg 1997; 132: 943–949.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Luketich J, Nguyen N, Schauer P. Laparoscopic trans-hiatal esophagectomy for Barrett’s esophagus with high-grade dysplasia. JSLS 1998; 2: 75–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Luketich J, Nguyen N, Weigel T, et al. The role of laparoscopy and video assisted thoracoscopy in esophagectomy (abstract). Surg Endosc 1998; 12: 554.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nguyen N, Schauer P, Luketich J. Combined laparoscopic and thoracoscopic approach to esophagectomy. J Am Coll Surg 1999; 188: 328–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • James D. Luketich
  • Philip R. Schauer

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations