Renal Function and Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

  • John J. Ryan
  • Edward T. ZawadaJr.


Seminal changes in the demographic structure of the Western world over the past 40 years include a falling birth rate and a significant increase in life expectancy of women and men. An ever-increasing proportion of gross national product is being devoted to the health care sector, which reflects advancement in medical technology and in the larger number of patients living longer lives, in part because of this technology. In fact, we are witnessing a demographic revolution evidenced by the mushrooming leisure industry and “retirement” housing and resort developments. These changes reflect the huge demand generated by the needs of an ever-increasing number of active, vital senior citizens. In parallel, significant changes are occurring in health care. Geriatric medicine and surgery have developed to such a degree that the management of complex problems in the elderly is now well established, and the expectations are that patients in their eighth and ninth decades can expect aggressive therapy, including major surgery with, for the most part, good outcomes.1–4


Glomerular Filtration Rate Acute Renal Failure Acute Tubular Necrosis Tubular Dysfunction Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • John J. Ryan
  • Edward T. ZawadaJr.

There are no affiliations available

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