Physiologic Changes and Benign Perimenopausal Breast Disease

  • Sancar Bayar
  • Barbara A. Ward


Familiarity with breast microanatomy and physiology aids in understanding benign breast physiology The female breast is composed of ductal and lobular units. The main breast ducts arise from lactiferous sinuses in the nipple and divide several times to form small ducts and then the smallest ductal elements, or “ductules,” which in fact form the lobular unit of the breast. The ductules also divide and terminate blindly with club-shaped endings. The ductules are sensitive to hormonal stimulation; during pregnancy they proliferate and form the alveolar components of the breast.1


Hormone Replacement Therapy Breast Density Male Breast Cancer Intraductal Papilloma Breast Cyst 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sancar Bayar
  • Barbara A. Ward

There are no affiliations available

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