Pain Management

  • R. Sean Morrison
  • Maria Torroella Carney
  • Paolo L. Manfredi


Whereas postoperative pain was once thought to be an inevitable, albeit severely unpleasant, consequence of surgery, it is now clear that appropriate analgesic therapies can result in effective pain management for nearly all surgical patients. Nevertheless, despite recent efforts to improve management of pain in the United States, undertreatment of pain, particularly postoperative pain, remains a persistent problem.1,2 This undertreatment appears to be dramatically worse in the elderly.3 Untreated or undertreated pain may have a substantial impact on patients’ postoperative recovery and may exacerbate underlying co-morbidities and normal age-related physiologic changes. Pain can induce tachycardia, increase myocardial oxygen requirements, and produce cardiac ischemia. Pain, or the fear of pain, may lead to limited postoperative physical activity, which may further increase the risk of thromboembolism, urinary retention, fecal impaction, ileus, and atelectasis. For all these reasons, control of postoperative pain in the elderly surgical patient is of critical importance.


Postoperative Pain Pain Management Cancer Pain Opioid Dose Preemptive Analgesia 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Sean Morrison
  • Maria Torroella Carney
  • Paolo L. Manfredi

There are no affiliations available

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