Experiments with Subliminal Manipulation

  • Gudmund J. W. Smith
Part of the Path in Psychology book series (PATH)


In 1951, at Harvard University, there was much talk about reactions to ambiguity. A study of these reactions could, it was thought, capture a variety of personality characteristics. Influenced by this discussion and armed with a Gerbrandt’s box tachistoscope, the present author set out to translate the ambiguity problem to a manageable laboratory situation. The idea was to present two conflicting pictures after each other in the tachistoscope. The first picture in a pair could be a schematic happy face, the immediately following one a schematic sad face.


Identity Test Emotional Word Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis Avoidance Strategy Creative People 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gudmund J. W. Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.Lund UniversityLundSweden

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