The Psychophysical Measurement of Image Quality

  • Jean-Bernard Martens
  • Martin Boschman


What is implied by the statement that the subjective quality of a number of images has been measured? Especially in an engineering community, where (objective) measurement and (subjective) judgement are usually kept very separate, the above question may need some clarification. We will start by making more precise what is understood by measurement and subjective in the current context.


Image Quality Stimulus Pair Stimulus Strength Numerical Category Asymptotic Standard Error 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    A. Agresti: “Categorical data analysis.” Psychological Bulletin 105: 290–301, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    A. Agresti: Categorical Data Analysis. John Wiley and Sons Inc.: New York, 1990.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    J. Anderson, P. Philips: “Regression, discrimination and measurement models for ordered categorical variables.” Applied Statistics 30: 22–31, 1981.MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    N. Anderson: “Functional measurement and psychological judgment.” Psychological Review 77: 153–170, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    R. Atkinson et al. (eds.): Stevens’ Handbook of Experimental Psychology — Perception and Motivation. John Wiley and Sons Inc.: New York, 1988.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    K. Boff, L. Kaufman, J. Thomas (eds.): Handbook of Perception and Human Performance — Sensory Processes and Perception. John Wiley and Sons Inc.: New York, 1986.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    M. Boschman: “Difscal: A program for the analysis of difference scaling results (v2.1).” IPO-Institute for Perception Research Manual 145, 1997.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    M. Boschman: “Thurcatd: A program for the analysis of ordinal category scaling results (v2.1).” IPO-Institute for Perception Research Manual 144, 1997.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    M. Boschman: “Difscal: A tool for analysing difference ratings on an ordinal category scale.” Behavior Research Method, Instruments and Computers submitted, 2000.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    M. Boschman: “Thurcatd: A tool for analyzing ratings on an ordinal category scale.” Behavior Research Method, Instruments and Computers 32: 379–388, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    H. de Ridder: “Current issues and new techniques in visual quality assessment.” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, pp. 869–872, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    H. de Ridder, G. Majoor: “Numerical category scaling: An efficient method for assessing digital image coding impairments.” in Human Vision and Electronic Imaging: Models, Methods and Applications, eds. B. Rogowitz, J. Allebach, vol. 1249, pp. 65–77, Proceedings of the SPIE, 1990.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    J. Falmagne: “Psychophysical measurement and theory.” in Boff et al. (6), pp. 1–66.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    M. Freeman, J. Tukey: “Transformations related to the angular and the square root.” Annals of Mathematical Statistics 21: 607–611, 1950.MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    D. Gun et al.: “Forced choice and ordinal discrete rating assessment of image quality: A comparison.” Journal of Digital Imaging 10: 103–107, 1997.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    ITU-R: “Methodology for the subjective assessment of the quality of television pictures.” Recommendation ITU-R BT.500–8 pp. 1–35, 1998.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    J. Kruskal: “Multidimensional scaling by optimizing goodness of fit to a nonmetric hypothesis.” Psychometrica 29: 1–27, 1964.MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    J. Kruskal: “Nonmetric multidimensional scaling: a numerical method.” Psychometrica 29: 115–129, 1964.MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    H. Levitt: “Transformed up-down methods in psychoacoustics.” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 49: 467–476, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    R. Luce, C. Krumhansl: “Measurement, scaling, and psychophysics.” in Atkinson et al. (5), pp. 3–74.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    J. Martens, G. Majoor: “The perceptual relevance of scale-space image coding.” Signal Processing 17: 353–364, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    F. Mosteller: “Remarks on the method of paired comparisons: Iii a test of significance for paired comparisons when equal standard deviations and equal correlations are assumed.” Psychometrika 16: 207–218, 1951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    F. Mounts, A. Netravali, P. B.: “Design of quantizers for real-time hadamard-transform coding of pictures.” Bell System Technical Journal 56: 21–48, 1977.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    A. Parducci, D. Wedell: “The category effect with rating scales: Number of categories, number of stimuli, and method of presentation.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 12: 496–516, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    J. Roufs, F. Blommaert, H. de Ridder: “Brightness-luminance relations: Future developments in the light of the past.” in Proceedings of the CIE, Melbourne, Australia, 1991.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    R. Shepard: “The analysis of proximities: Multidimensional scaling with an unknown distance function.” Psychometrica 27: 219–246, 1962.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    S. Stevens: “On the psychophysical law.” Psychological Review 64: 153–181, 1957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    K. Teunissen: “The validity of ccir quality indicators along a graphical scale.” SMPTE Journal 105: 144–149, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    L. Thurstone: “A law of comparative judgement.” Psychological Review 34: 273–286, 1927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    W. Torgerson: Theory and Methods of Scaling. John Wiley and Sons Inc.: New York, 1958.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    H. van Trees: Detection, Estimation an Modulation Theory. John Wiley and Sons Inc.: New York, 1968.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    W Wagenaar: “Stevens versus fechner: A plea for dismissal of the case.” Acta Psychologica 39: 225–235, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    T. Wickens: “Tutorial on modeling ordered categorical response data.” Annual Review of Psychology 48: 537–558, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    F. Young: “Scaling.” Annual Review of Psychology 35: 55–81, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean-Bernard Martens
    • 1
  • Martin Boschman
    • 1
  1. 1.IPO — Center for User-System InteractionEindhovenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations