The gallbladder lies between the right and left lobe of the liver and attaches to the liver at the under surface of segment IV and V. In this protected position, it acidifies, concentrates and stores bile. When stimulated to contract the gallbladder delivers bile salts and other biliary components into the intestine where these substances aid in the absorption of nutrients.


Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Acute Cholecystitis Gallbladder Cancer Gallbladder Carcinoma Biliary Tract Cancer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Liu, K.J., Richter, H.M., Cho, M.J., Jarad, J., Nadimpalli, V., and Donahue, P.E. Carcinoma involving the gallbladder in elderly patients presenting with acute cholecystitis. Surgery 122:748, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Redaelli, C.A., Buchler, M.W., Schilling, M.K., Krahenbuhl, L., Ruchti, C, Blumgart, L.H., and Baer, H.U. High coincidence of Mirizzi syndrome and gallbladder carcinoma. Surgery 121:58, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chow, W., Johansen, C, Gridley, G., Mellemkjaer, L., Olsen, J., and Fraumeni, J.J. Gallstones, cholecystectomy and risk of cancers of the liver, biliary tract and pancreas. Br J Cancer 79:640, 1999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Okamoto, M, Okamoto, H., Kitahara, R., Kobayashi, K., Karikome, K., Miura, K., Matsumoto, Y., and Fujino, M. Ultrasonographic evidence of association of polyps and stones with gallbladder cancer. Am J Gastroenterol 94:446, 1999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Collett, J., Allan, R., Chisholm, R., Wilson, I., Burt, M., and Chapman, B. Gallbladder polyps: prospective study. J Ultrasound Med 17:207, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shinkai, H., Kimura, W., and Muto, T. Surgical indications for small polypoid lesions of the gallbladder. Am J Surg 175:114, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lundberg, O. and Kristoffersson, A. Port site metastases from gallbladder cancer after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Results of a Swedish survey and review of published reports. Eur J Surg 165:215, 1999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sugiyama, M., Xie, X., Atomi, Y., and Saito, M. Differential diagnosis of small polypoid lesions of the gallbladder: the value of endoscopic ultrasonography. Ann Surg 229:49, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mangel, A. W. Management of gallbladder polyps. South Med J 90:481, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tsukada, K., Kurosaki, I., Uchida, K., Shirai, Y., Oohashi, Y., Yokoyama, N., Watanabe, H., and Hatakeyama, K. Lymph node spread from carcinoma of the gallbladder. Cancer 80:661, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ohtani, T., Shirai, Y., Tsukada, K., Muto, T., and Hatakeyama, K. Spread of gallbladder carcinoma: CT evaluation with pathologic correlation. Abdom Imaging 21:195, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kelekis, N.L. and Semelka, R.C. MR imaging of the gallbladder.[Review]. Top Magn Res on Imaging 8:312, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schwartz, L.H., Coakley, F.V., Sun, Y., Blumgart, L.H., Fong, Y., and Panicek, D.M. Neoplastic pancreaticobiliary duct obstruction: evaluation with breath-hold MR cholangiopancreatography. Am J Roentgenol 170:1491, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Georgopoulos, S.K., Schwartz, L.H., Jarnagin, W.R., Gerdes, H., Breite, I., Fong, Y., Blumgart, L.H., and Kurtz, R.C. Comparison of magnetic resonance and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in malignant pancreaticobiliary obstruction. Arch Surg 134:1002, 1999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    de Aretxabala, X., Roa, I.S., Burgos, L.A., Araya, J.C., Villaseca, M.A., and Silva, J. A. Curative resection in potentially resectable tumors of the gallbladder. Eur J Surg 163:419, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yamaguchi, K., Chijiiwa, K., Saiki, S., Nishihara, K., Takashima, M., Kawakami, K., and Tanaka, M. Retrospective analysis of 70 operations for gallbladder carcinoma. Br J Surg S4:200, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yamaguchi, K., Chijiiwa, K., Shimizu, S., Yokohata, K., Tsuneyoshi, M., and Tanaka, M. Anatomical limit of extended cholecystectomy for gallbladder carcinoma involving the neck of the gallbladder. Int Surg 83:21, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shimada, H., Eno, I., Togo, S., Nakano, A., Izumi, T., and Nadagawara, G. The role of lymph node dissection in the treatment of gallbladder carcinoma. Cancer 79:892, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chijiiwa, K. and Tanaka, M. Indications for and limitations of extended cholecystectomy in the treatment of carcinoma of the gallbladder. Eur J Surg 162:211, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ogura, Y., Matsuda, S., Sakurai, H., Kawarada, Y., and Mizumoto, R. Central bisegmentectomy of the liver plus caudate lobectomy for carcinoma of the gallbladder. Dig Surg 15:218, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shirai, Y., Ohtani, T., Tsukada, K., and Hatakeyama, K. Combined pancreaticoduodenectomy and hepatectomy for patients with locally advanced gallbladder carcinoma: long term results. Cancer 80:1904, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schaeff, B., Paolucci, V., and Thomopoulos, J.Port site recurrences after laparoscopic surgery. A review. Dig Surg 15:124, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Z’graggen, K., Birrer, S., Maurer, CA., Wehrli, H., Klaiber, C, and Baer, H.U. Incidence of port site recurrence after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for preoperatively unsuspected gallbladder carcinoma. Surgery 124:831, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Contini, S., Dalle Valle, R., and Zinicola, R. Unexpected gallbladder cancer after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an emerging problem? Reflections on four cases. SurgEndosc 13:264,1999.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ricardo, A.E., Feig, B.W., Ellis, L.M., Hunt, K.K., Curley, S.A., MacFadyen, B.V., and Mansfield, P.F. Gallbladder cancer and trocar site recurrences. Am J Surg 174:619, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yamaguchi, K., Chijiiwa, K., Ichimiya, H., Sada, M., Kawakami, K., Nishikata, F., Konomi, K., and Tanaka, M. Gallbladder carcinoma in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Arch Surg 131:981, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Suzuki, K., Kimura, T., and Ogawa, H. Is laparoscopic cholecystectomy hazardous for gallbladder cancer? Surgery 123:311, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Part, Y.Z., Jones, D.V., Hoque, A., Lozano, R., Markowitz, A., Raijman, I., Lynch, P., and Charnsangavej, C. Phase II trial of intravenous flourouracil and subcutaneous interferon alfa-2b for biliary tract cancer. J Clin Oncol 14:2311, 1996.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Harvey, J.H., Smith, F.P., and Schein, P.S. 5-Fluorouracil, mitomycin, and doxorubicin (FAM) in carcinoma of the biliary tract. J Clin Oncol 2:1245, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Castro, M. Efficacy of gemcitabine in the treatment of patients with gallbladder carcinoma: a case report. Cancer 82:639, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    de Aretxabala, X., Roa, I., Burgos, L., Cartes, R., Silva, J., Yanez, E., Araya, J.C., Villaseca M., Quijada, I., and Vittini, C. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of gallbladder cancer. Am Surg 65:241, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chaudhary, A., Dhar, P., Tomey, S., Sachdev, A., and Agarwal, A. Segment III cholangiojejunostomy for carcinoma of the gallbladder. World J Surg 21:866, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kapoor, V.K., Pradeep, R., Haribhakti, S.P., Singh, V., Sikora, S.S., Saxena, R., and Kaushik, S.P. Intrahepatic segment III cholangiojejunostomy in advanced carcinoma of the gallbladder. Br J Surg 83:1709, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Blumgart, L.H. and Kelley, C.J. Hepaticojejunostomy in benign and malignant high bile duct stricture: approaches to the left hepatic ducts. Br.J.Surg. 71:257, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lee, B.H., Choe, D.H., Lee, J.H., Kim, K.H., and Chin, S.Y. Metallic stents in malignant biliary obstruction: prospective long-term clinical results. Am J Roentgenol 168:741, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chijiiwa, K., Yamaguchi, K., and Tanaka, M. Clinicopathologic differences between long-term and short-term postoperative survivors with advanced gallbladder carcinoma. World J Surg 21:98, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lillian G. Dawes
    • 1
  1. 1.University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations