Circulation Changes in Europe since the 1780s

  • Jucundus Jacobeit
  • Phil Jones
  • Trevor Davies
  • Christoph Beck


Climatic variability and changes are inherently linked with variability and changes in the atmospheric circulation, the latter comprising causes as well as effects of the former (Hupfer, 1991). Therefore, climate research should always include investigations on the behaviour of the circulation. This is valid within an historical perspective. In view of possible changes in climate that might be expected in the near future due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing, it is of crucial importance to learn about natural variabilities in climate and atmospheric circulation through the extension of empirical research into the historical past.


Circulation Pattern North Atlantic Oscillation North Atlantic Oscillation Index Circulation Change Circulation Type 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Barnston, A.G., and Livezey, R.E., 1987, Classification, seasonality and persistence of low-frequency atmospheric circulation patterns, Mon. Wea. Rev. 115: 1083–1126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bartzokas, A., and Metaxas, D.A., 1996, Northern hemisphere gross circulation types, Meteorol. Zeitschrift N.F. 5: 99–109.Google Scholar
  3. Beck, C., 1999, Zirkulationsdynamische Variabilität im Bereich Nordatlantik-Europa seit 1780, Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Würzburg, 333 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Corti, S., Molteni, F., and Palmer, T.N., 1999, Signature of recent climate change in frequencies of natural atmospheric circulation regimes, Nature 398: 799–802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gerstengarbe, F.W., and Werner, P.C., 1993, Katalog der Grosswetterlagen Europas nach P. Hess und H. Brezowsky 1881–1992, Berichte des Deutschen Wetterdienstes 113 (fourth edition).Google Scholar
  6. Hess, P., and Brezowsky, H., 1977, Katalog der Grosswetterlagen Europas, Berichte des Deutschen Wetterdienstes 113 (second edition).Google Scholar
  7. Hupfer, P. (Ed.), 1991, Das Klimasystem der Erde, Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 464 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Hurrell, J.W., 1995, Decadal trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation: regional temperatures and precipitation, Science 269: 676–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jacobeit, J., 1993, Regionale Unterschiede im atmosphärischen Zirkulationsgeschehen bei globalen Klimaveränderungen, Die Erde 124: 63–77.Google Scholar
  10. Jacobeit, J., 1997, Atlantisch-europäische Bodenluftdruckfelder ombrothermisch anomaler Monate in Mitteleuropa als Hilfsmittel für die synoptische Interpretation analoger Anomalien im historischen Klima und in zukünftigen Klimaszenarien, Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen 141: 139–144.Google Scholar
  11. Jacobeit, J., Beck, C., and Philipp, A., 1998, Annual to decadal variability in climate in Europe - objectives and results of the German contribution to the European climate research project ADVICE, Würzburger Geographische Manuskripte 43: 163 pp.Google Scholar
  12. Jacobeit, J., Wanner, H., Koslowski, G., and Gudd, M., 1999, European surface pressure patterns for months with outstanding climatic anomlies during the Sixteenth Century, Clim. Change 43: 201–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jacobeit, J., Jönsson, P., Barring, L., Beck, C., and Ekström, M., 2000, Zonal indices for Europe 1780–1995 and running correlations with temperature, Clim. Change (in press).Google Scholar
  14. Jones, P. D., Wigley, T. M., and Briffa, K., 1987, Monthly mean pressure reconstructions for Europe (back to1780) and for North America (to 1858), United States Department of Energy TR037: 99 pp.Google Scholar
  15. Jones, P.D., Jonsson, T., and Wheeler, D., 1997, Extension of the North Atlantic Oscillation using early instrumental pressure observations from Gibraltar and southwest Iceland, Int. J. Climatol. 17: 1433–1450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jones, P. D., Davies, T. D., Lister, D. H., Slonosky, V., Jonsson, T., Barring, L., Jönsson, P., Maheras, P., Kolyva-Machera, F., Barriendos, M., Martin-Vide, J., Alcoforado, M.J., Wanner, H., Pfister, C., Schuepbach, E., Kaas, E., Schmith, T., Jacobeit, J., and Beck, C., 1999, Monthly mean pressure reconstructions for Europe for the 1780–1995 period, Int. J. Climatol. 19: 347–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kapala, A., Mächel, H., and Flohn, H., 1998, Behaviour of the centres of action above the Atlantic since 1881. Part II: Associations with regional climate anomalies, Int. J. Climat. 18: 23–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kington, J.A., 1988, The Weather of the 1780s over Europe,Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 166 pp. Klaus, D., 1997, Änderungen der Zirkulationsstruktur im europäisch-atlantischen Sektor, Abhandlungen derMath.-Naturwiss. Klasse der Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur Mainz,Jahrgang 1997,Nr. 3.Google Scholar
  19. Lamb, H.H.,and Johnson, A.I., 1966, Secular variations of the atmospheric circulation since 1750, Geophys. Mem. 110: 125 pp.Google Scholar
  20. Luterbacher, J. et al., 2000, Reconstruction of monthly mean pressure over Europe for the Late MaunderGoogle Scholar
  21. Minimum period (1675–1715) based on canonical correlation analysis, Int. J. Climat. (in press). Mächel, H., Kapala, A., and Flohn, H., 1998, Behaviour of the centres of action above the Atlantic since 1881.Google Scholar
  22. Part I: Characteristics of seasonal and interannual variability, Int. J. Climat. 18: 1–22.Google Scholar
  23. Moses, T., Kiladis, G. N., Diaz, H. F., and Barry, R. G., 1987: Characteristics and frequency of reversals in mean sea level pressure in the North Atlantic sector and their relationship to long-term temperature trends, J. Climatol. 7: 12–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pfister, C., 1999, Wetternachhersage - 500 Jahre Klimavariationen und Naturkatastrophen, Verlag Paul Haupt, Bern, Stuttgart, Wien, 304 pp.Google Scholar
  25. Richman, M.B., 1986, Rotation of principal components, J. Climatol. 6: 293–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rogers, J.C., 1984, The association between the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Southern Oscillation in the Northern Hemisphere, Mon. Wea. Rev. 112: 1999–2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rogers, J.C., 1990, Patterns of low-frequency monthly sea level pressure variability (1899–1986) and associated wave cyclone frequencies, J. Clim. 3: 1364–1379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Schmutz, C., and Wanner, H., 1998, Low frequency variability of atmospheric circulation over Europe between 1785 and 1994, Erdkunde 52: 81–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wanner, H., 1994, The Atlantic-European Circulation Patterns and their Significance for Climate in the Alps, Report 1/94 to the National Science Foundation, Bern.Google Scholar
  30. Wanner, H., Gyalistras, D., Luterbacher, J., Rickli, R., Salvisberg, E., and Schmutz, C., 2000, Klimawandel im Schweizer Alpenraum, Vdf Hochschulverlag AG, Zürich.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jucundus Jacobeit
    • 1
  • Phil Jones
    • 2
  • Trevor Davies
    • 2
  • Christoph Beck
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of GeographyUniversity of WürzburgGermany
  2. 2.Climatic Research UnitUniversity of East AngliaUK

Personalised recommendations