Pre-Instrumental Weather Observations in Poland in the 16th and 17th Centuries

  • Anita Bokwa
  • Danuta Limanówka
  • Joanna Wibig
Chapter

Abstract

A few remarkable episodes can be distinguished in the European climate of the last millennium. The first is the Medieval Warm Epoch (MWE). The culmination of the MWE occurred in the 12th and 13th centuries in the period 1150-1300 (Lamb, 1982). This warm period was followed by a colder one which lasted to the second half of the 19th century and is known as the so-called Little Ice Age (LIA). The climate during the LIA was not constantly cold. The recoveries to warmer conditions in the first half of the 15th century and around 1700–1750 are evident (Lamb, 1982). They were followed by reversions to colder conditions. Some authors stress the coincidence of the two greatest periods of cooling with the two prolonged minima of sunspot activity, the Spörer Minimum from 1400 to 1510 and the Maunder Minimum from 1645 to 1715 (Schuurmans,1981; Pfister, 1994b). An increase of volcanic activity is also mentioned as a reason for the LIA. Since the second part of the 19th century the temperature has been rising although some reversions to colder conditions are also present. This warming is a global feature (Jones et al., 1986; Jones, 1994) and can be linked to an anthropogenic increase of CO2 and other greenhouse gas concentrations as well as to solar and volcanic activity variations (Schönwiese, 1984).

Keywords

Maunder Minimum Monthly Frequency Weather Observation Fine Weather Severe Frost 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Borisenkov, E.P., 1994, Climatic and other natural extremes in the European territory of Russia in the late Maunder Minimum (1675–1715), in: Climatic Trends and Anomalies in Europe 1675–1715, ed. Burkhard Frenzel, Special Issue: ESF Project, European Paleoclimate and Man 8, Gustav Fischer Verlag.Google Scholar
  2. Borisenkov, E.P., 1995, Documentary evidence from the U.S.S.R. in: Climate since A.D. 1500, R.S. Bradley and P.D. Jones, ed., Routledge, London and New York.Google Scholar
  3. Brâzdil, R., 1994, Climatic Fluctuations in the Czech Lands during the Last Millennium, GeoJournal 32: 199–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chrapowicki, J.A., 1978, Diariusz, cz. I: lata 1656–1664, Instytut Wydawniczy PAX, Warszawa.Google Scholar
  5. Chrapowicki, J.A., 1988, Diariusz, cz. II: lata 1665–1669, Instytut Wydawniczy PAX, Warszawa.Google Scholar
  6. Climatic Atlas of Poland, 1971, Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, ed. Wyd. Kom. i Lgcz., Warszawa.Google Scholar
  7. Climatic Atlas of Damaging for Agriculture Elements and Phenomena in Poland, 1990, Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation in Pulawy and Agriculture University of Szczecin.Google Scholar
  8. Firlet, E.M., 1998, Najstarsza panorama Krakowa, Muzeum Historyczne miasta Krakowa.Google Scholar
  9. Frisch, C., ed., 1858–1870, Joannis Kepleri astronomi opera omnia Volumines I et VIIGoogle Scholar
  10. Frankfurt am Main. Gauricus, L., 1533, Ephemerides 1534–1551, Venezia (in the archives of the Jagiellonian University Library, Cracow, catalogue number BJ Cim. 5521 ).Google Scholar
  11. Glaser, R., Brâzdil, R., Pfister, C., Dobrovolny, P., Barriendos Vallve, M., Bokwa, A., Camuffo, D., Kotyza, O., Limanówka, D., Râcz, L., and Rodrigo, F.S., 1999, Seasonal temperature and precipitation fluctuations in selected parts of Europe during the sixteenth century, Climatic Change 43: 169–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hellmann, G.,1883, Repertorium der Deutschen Meteorologie LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  13. Jones, P.D., 1994, Recent warming in global temperature series, Geoph. Res. Letters 21: 1149–1152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jones, P.D., Raper, S.C.B., Bradley, R.S., Diaz, H.F., Kelly, P.M., and Wigley, T.M.L., 1986, Northern Hemisphere surface air temperature variations: 1851–1984, Jour. of Clim. and Appl. Met. 25: 161–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Klemm, F., 1976, Die Entwicklung der meteorologischen Beobachtungen in Nord-und Mitteldeutschland bis 1700, Annalen der Meteorologie (neue Folge) 10: 37–43.Google Scholar
  16. Lamb, H.H., 1982, Climate, History and the Modern World, Methuen, London and New York. Limanówka, D., 1999, Powodzie w Krakowie w âwietle zapisków pogodowych z XVI wieku, ed.Google Scholar
  17. Interdyscyplinarno§é w badaniach dorzecza, Krakow-Dobczyce, 21–23 May 1999 (in Polish). Manley, G., 1974, Central England temperatures: monthly means 1659 to 1973, Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 100: 389–405.Google Scholar
  18. Migtus, M., Wielbinska, D., and Owczarek, M., 1994, History of meteorological observations at some stations at the Polish coast, Reports of Institute of Meteorology and Water Management 42 /2: 41–64 (in Polish).Google Scholar
  19. Pfister, C., 1995, Monthly temperature and precipitation in central Europe from 1525–1979: quantifying documentary evidence on weather and its effects. in: Climate since A.D. 1500, R.S. Bradley and P.D. Jones, eds., Routledge, London and New York.Google Scholar
  20. Pfister, C., Kington, J., Kleinlogel, G., Schule, H., and Siffert, E., 1994a, High resolution spatio-temporal reconstructions of past climate from direct meteorological observations and proxy data, in: Climatic Trends and Anomalies in Europe 1675–1715, ed. Burkhard Frenzel, Special Issue: ESF Project, European Paleoclimate and Man 8, Gustav Fischer Verlag.Google Scholar
  21. Pfister, C., Yan, Z., and Schüle, H., 1994b, Climatic variations in western Europe and China, AD 1645–1715: a preliminary continental-scale comparison of documentary evidence, The Holocene 4: 206–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pfister, C., Brâzdil, R., Glaser, R., Bokwa, A., Holawe, F., Limanówka, D., Kotyza, O., Munzar, J., Râcz, L., Strömmer, E., and Schwarz-Zanetti, G., Daily Weather Observations in Sixteenth-Century Europe, Climatic Change 43: 111–150.Google Scholar
  23. Polaczkówna, M., 1925, Climatic variations in Poland during the Middle Ages (in Polish and English), Travaux Geographiques publiés sous la direction de E. Romer, KsiaZnica-Atlas, Lwów-Warszawa. Polski Slownik Biograficzny, PWN, Krakow, 1935–1971.Google Scholar
  24. Schönwiese, Ch.-D., 1984, Northern Hemisphere temperature statistics and forcing. Part B: 1579–1980 AD, Arch. Met. Geoph. Biocl., Ser., B 35: 155–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Schule, H., Data handling and process structure in the EURO-CLIMHIST Data Bank, in: Climatic Trends and Anomalies in Europe 1675–1715,ed. Burkhard Frenzel, Special Issue: ESF Project, European Paleoclimate and Man 8, Gustav Fischer Verlag.Google Scholar
  26. Schuurmans, C.J.E., 1981, Climate of the last 1000 years. in: Climatic Variations and Variability: Facts and Theories, A. Berger, ed., D. Reidel Publ. Comp., Dordrecht - Boston - London.Google Scholar
  27. Stöffler, J., and Pflaum, J., 1499, Almanach Nova 1499–1531, Ulm (in the archives of the Jagiellonian University Library, Cracow, catalogue number BJ Inc. 2697 ).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anita Bokwa
    • 1
  • Danuta Limanówka
    • 2
  • Joanna Wibig
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Geography, Department of ClimatologyJagiellonian UniversityPoland
  2. 2.Institute of Meteorology and Water ManagementBranch KrakówPoland
  3. 3.Department of Meteorology and ClimatologyUniversity of ŁódźPoland

Personalised recommendations